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Does Macro-Pru Leak? Evidence from a UK Policy Experiment

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  • Shekhar Aiyar
  • Charles W. Calomiris
  • Tomasz Wieladek

Abstract

The regulation of bank capital as a means of smoothing the credit cycle is a central element of forthcoming macro-prudential regimes internationally. For such regulation to be effective in controlling the aggregate supply of credit it must be the case that: (i) changes in capital requirements affect loan supply by regulated banks, and (ii) unregulated substitute sources of credit are unable to offset changes in credit supply by affected banks. This paper examines micro evidence—lacking to date—on both questions, using a unique dataset. In the UK, regulators have imposed time-varying, bank-specific minimum capital requirements since Basel I. It is found that regulated banks (UK-owned banks and resident foreign subsidiaries) reduce lending in response to tighter capital requirements. But unregulated banks (resident foreign branches) increase lending in response to tighter capital requirements on a relevant reference group of regulated banks. This “leakage” is substantial, amounting to about one-third of the initial impulse from the regulatory change.

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Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 17822.

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Date of creation: Feb 2012
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Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:17822

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References

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Bank for International Settlements, 2012. "Operationalising the selection and application of macroprudential instruments," CGFS Papers, Bank for International Settlements, number 48, January.
  2. Seung Jung Lee & Viktors Stebunovs, 2012. "Bank capital ratios and the structure of nonfinancial industries," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-53, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  3. Buch, Claudia M. & Prieto, Esteban, 2012. "Do better capitalized banks lend less? Long-run panel evidence from Germany," University of Tuebingen Working Papers in Economics and Finance 37, University of Tuebingen, Faculty of Economics and Social Sciences.
  4. Jeanne, Olivier, 2013. "Macroprudential policies in a global perspective," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Nov, pages 1-38.
  5. Claessens, Stijn & Ghosh, Swati R. & Mihet, Roxana, 2013. "Macro-prudential policies to mitigate financial system vulnerabilities," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 153-185.
  6. Douglas Sutherland & Peter Hoeller, 2012. "Debt and Macroeconomic Stability: An Overview of the Literature and Some Empirics," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1006, OECD Publishing.
  7. R. Glenn Hubbard, 2013. "Financial regulatory reform: a progress report," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue May, pages 181-198.
  8. Bridges, Jonathan & Gregory, David & Nielsen, Mette & Pezzini, Silvia & Radia, Amar & Spaltro, Marco, 2014. "The impact of capital requirements on bank lending," Bank of England working papers 486, Bank of England.
  9. Shekhar Aiyar, 2012. "From Financial Crisis to Great Recession: The Role of Globalized Banks," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(3), pages 225-30, May.
  10. Ono, Arito & Uchida, Hirofumi & Udell, Gregory & Uesugi, Iichiro, 2013. "A Close Look at Loan-To-Value Ratios: Evidence from the Japanese Real Estate Market," Working Paper Series 19, Center for Interfirm Network, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  11. Paolo Angelini & Sergio Nicoletti-Altimari & Ignazio Visco, 2012. "Macroprudential, microprudential and monetary policies: conflicts, complementarities and trade-offs," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 140, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  12. Nicolas Arregui & Jaromir Benes & Ivo Krznar & Srobona Mitra & Andre Santos, 2013. "Evaluating the Net Benefits of Macroprudential Policy," IMF Working Papers 13/167, International Monetary Fund.
  13. Alfredo Martin-Oliver & Sonia Ruano & Vicente Salas-Fumas, 2013. "Banks' Equity Capital Frictions, Capital Ratios, and Interest Rates: Evidence from Spanish Banks," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 9(1), pages 183-225, March.
  14. Alfredo Martín-Oliver & Sonia Ruano & Vicente Salas-Fumás, 2012. "Effects of equity capital on the interest rate and the demand for credit. Empirical evidence from Spanish banks," Banco de Espa�a Working Papers 1218, Banco de Espa�a.
  15. Markus Behn & Rainer Haselmann & Paul Wachtel, 2013. "Pro-Cyclical Capital Regulation and Lending," Working Papers 13-11, New York University, Leonard N. Stern School of Business, Department of Economics.
  16. Antoniades, Adonis, 2013. "Liquidity Risk and the Credit Crunch of 2007-2009: Evidence from Micro-Level Data on Mortgage Loan Applications," MPRA Paper 49270, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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