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Do Some Enterprise Zones Create Jobs?

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  • Jed Kolko
  • David Neumark

Abstract

We study how the employment effects of enterprise zones vary with their location, implementation, and administration, based on evidence from California. We use new establishment-level data and geographic mapping methods, coupled with a survey of enterprise zone administrators. Overall, the evidence indicates that enterprise zones do not increase employment. However, the evidence also suggests that the enterprise zone program has a more favorable effect on employment in zones that have a lower share of manufacturing and in zones where managers report doing more marketing and outreach activities. On the other hand, devoting more effort to helping firms get hiring tax credits reduces or eliminates any positive employment effects, which may be attributable to idiosyncrasies of California’s enterprise zone program during the period we study.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Working Papers with number 15206.

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Date of creation: Aug 2009
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Publication status: published as Jed Kolko & David Neumark, 2010. "Do some enterprise zones create jobs?," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(1), pages 5-38.
Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:15206

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  1. Robert T. Greenbaum & John B. Engberg, 2004. "The impact of state enterprise zones on urban manufacturing establishments," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(2), pages 315-339.
  2. Busso, Matias & Kline, Patrick, 2008. "Do Local Economic Development Programs Work? Evidence from the Federal Empowerment Zone Program," Working Papers 36, Yale University, Department of Economics.
  3. Papke, Leslie E., 1994. "Tax policy and urban development : Evidence from the Indiana enterprise zone program," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 37-49, May.
  4. David Neumark & Jed Kolko, 2008. "Do Enterprise Zones Create Jobs? Evidence from California's Enterprise Zone Program," NBER Working Papers 14530, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Alan H. Peters & Peter S. Fisher, 2002. "State Enterprise Zone Programs: Have They Worked?," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number sezp, December.
  6. Glaeser Edward L, 2005. "Should the Government Rebuild New Orleans, Or Just Give Residents Checks?," The Economists' Voice, De Gruyter, vol. 2(4), pages 1-7, September.
  7. Marlon G. Boarnet, 2001. "Enterprise Zones and Job Creation: Linking Evaluation and Practice," Economic Development Quarterly, , vol. 15(3), pages 242-254, August.
  8. A. Colin Cameron & Jonah B. Gelbach & Douglas L. Miller, 2008. "Bootstrap-Based Improvements for Inference with Clustered Errors," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 90(3), pages 414-427, August.
  9. Bondonio, Daniele & Greenbaum, Robert T., 2007. "Do local tax incentives affect economic growth? What mean impacts miss in the analysis of enterprise zone policies," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 121-136, January.
  10. Kris Wernstedt & Peter B. Meyer & Anna Alberini, 2006. "Attracting private investment to contaminated properties: The value of public interventions," Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 25(2), pages 247-369.
  11. Neumark, David & Zhang, Junfu & Wall, Brandon, 2005. "Employment Dynamics and Business Relocation: New Evidence from the National Establishment Time Series," IZA Discussion Papers 1774, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  12. Landers, Jim, 2006. "Why Don't Enterprise Zones Work? Estimates of the Extent that EZ Benefits are Capitalized into Property Values," Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association, vol. 36(1).
  13. Leslie E. Papke, 1993. "What Do We Know about Enterprise Zones?," NBER Working Papers 4251, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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Cited by:
  1. P. Givord & R. Rathelot & P. Sillard, 2011. "Place-based tax exemptions and displacement effects: An evaluation of the Zones Franches Urbaines program," Documents de Travail de la DESE - Working Papers of the DESE g2011-13, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, DESE.
  2. Pauline Givord, 2011. "Essay on Four Issues in Public Policy Evaluation," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/53r60a8s3ku, Sciences Po.
  3. repec:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/53r60a8s3kup1vc9je5h30d2n is not listed on IDEAS
  4. Marchand, Joseph, 2012. "Local labor market impacts of energy boom-bust-boom in Western Canada," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 165-174.
  5. Mazzolari, Francesca & Numark, David, 2009. "The Effects of Immigration on the Scale and Composition of Demand: A study of California establishments," MPRA Paper 19217, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Laura Wolf-Powers, 2013. "Predictors of Employment Growth and Unemployment in U.S. Central Cities, 1990-2010," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 13-199, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
  7. Accetturo, Antonio & de Blasio, Guido, 2012. "Policies for local development: An evaluation of Italy's “Patti Territoriali”," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1-2), pages 15-26.
  8. David Neumark & Jed Kolko, 2008. "Do Enterprise Zones Create Jobs? Evidence from California's Enterprise Zone Program," NBER Working Papers 14530, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. David Neumark & Helen Simpson, 2014. "Place-Based Policies," NBER Working Papers 20049, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. Balz R. Bodenmann, 2011. "Modelling firm (re-)location choice in UrbanSim," ERSA conference papers ersa11p1091, European Regional Science Association.
  11. Anthony Briant & Miren Lafourcade & Benoît Schmutz, 2012. "Can Tax Breaks Beat Geography? Lessons from the French Enterprise Zone Experience," PSE Working Papers halshs-00695225, HAL.
  12. Timothy J. Bartik & Kevin Hollenbeck, 2012. "An Analysis of the Employment Effects of the Washington High Technology Business and Occupation (B&O) Tax Credit," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 12-187, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
  13. Timothy J. Bartik & George A. Erickcek, 2012. "Simulating the Effects of Michigan's MEGA Tax Credit Program on Job Creation and Fiscal Benefits," Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles 12-185, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
  14. P. Givord & S. Quantin & C. Trevien, 2012. "A Long-Term Evaluation of the First Generation of the French Urban Enterprise Zones," Documents de Travail de la DESE - Working Papers of the DESE g2012-01, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, DESE.

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