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Geographic concentration and firm productivity

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  • David C. Maré

    ()
    (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)

  • Jason Timmins

    ()
    (New Zealand Department of Labour)

Abstract

Firms operating in dense labour markets are more productive, although understanding the mechanisms behind this relationship is both challenging and contentious. This paper uses a newly assembled dataset on location and labour productivity of most New Zealand firms to examine the role of location patterns at the industry, local labour market, and industry*location levels. We derive estimates in the presence of firm, location, and period fixed effects, paying particular attention to controlling for unobserved local and industry factors. Our findings confirm that labour productivity is higher for firms in geographically-concentrated industries ("localisation"), for firms in more industrially-diversified labour markets ("urbanisation"), and for firms operating in larger labour markets. Controlling for heterogeneity of industries, locations, and firms, we find some support for a positive productivity effect of changes in both localisation and urbanisation, although not all estimated effects are statistically and economically significant.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Motu Economic and Public Policy Research in its series Working Papers with number 06_08.

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Length: 50 pages
Date of creation: Oct 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mtu:wpaper:06_08

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Keywords: Labour Productivity; Geographic concentration; agglomeration;

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References

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  1. Edward L. Glaeser & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1991. "Growth in Cities," NBER Working Papers 3787, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    • Glaeser, Edward Ludwig & Kallal, Hedi D. & Scheinkman, Jose A. & Shleifer, Andrei, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Scholarly Articles 3451309, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  2. David C. Maré, 2005. "Concentration, Specialisation and Agglomeration of firms in New Zealand," Working Papers 05_12, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
  3. Henderson, J. Vernon, 2003. "Marshall's scale economies," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 1-28, January.
  4. Giles Duranton & Diego Puga, 2003. "Micro-Foundations of Urban Agglomeration Economies," NBER Working Papers 9931, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Ciccone, Antonio & Hall, Robert E, 1996. "Productivity and the Density of Economic Activity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(1), pages 54-70, March.
  6. Nick Carroll & Dean Hyslop & David Mare & Jason Timmins & Julian Wood, 2002. "An analysis of New Zealand's business demography database," New Zealand Economic Papers, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 59-61.
  7. Ciccone, Antonio, 2002. "Agglomeration effects in Europe," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 46(2), pages 213-227, February.
  8. Gilles Duranton & Diego Puga, 2000. "Nursery Cities: Urban Diversity, Process Innovation and the Life-Cycle of Products," CEP Discussion Papers dp0445, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  9. Maurel, Francoise & Sedillot, Beatrice, 1999. "A measure of the geographic concentration in french manufacturing industries," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 575-604, September.
  10. Thomas J. Holmes & John J. Stevens, 2002. "Geographic Concentration and Establishment Scale," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(4), pages 682-690, November.
  11. Nakamura, Ryohei, 1985. "Agglomeration economies in urban manufacturing industries: A case of Japanese cities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 108-124, January.
  12. Henderson, J. Vernon, 1986. "Efficiency of resource usage and city size," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(1), pages 47-70, January.
  13. Papps, Kerry L. & Newell, James O., 2002. "Identifying Functional Labour Market Areas in New Zealand: A Reconnaissance Study Using Travel-to-Work Data," IZA Discussion Papers 443, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  14. Glaeser, Edward L & Mare, David C, 2001. "Cities and Skills," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 19(2), pages 316-42, April.
  15. Rosenthal, Stuart S. & Strange, William C., 2004. "Evidence on the nature and sources of agglomeration economies," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, in: J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 49, pages 2119-2171 Elsevier.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. David C. Maré & Andrew Coleman, 2011. "Patterns of business location in Auckland," Working Papers 11_08, Motu Economic and Public Policy Research.
  2. Fabling, Richard & Grimes, Arthur & Sanderson , Lynda & Stevens, Philip, 2008. "Some Rise by Sin, and Some by Virtue Fall: Firm Dynamics, Market Structure and Performance," Occasional Papers 08/1, Ministry of Economic Development, New Zealand.
  3. Stuart Birks, 2012. "Rethinking economics: Logical gaps – empirical to the real world," Working Papers 20121217, Department of Accounting, Economics and Finance, Bristol Business School, University of the West of England, Bristol.
  4. Otto, Anne & Fornahl, Dirk, 2008. "Long-term growth determinants of young businesses in Germany : effects of regional concentration and specialisation," IAB Discussion Paper 200813, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
  5. Maré, David, 2008. "Labour Productivity in Auckland Firms," Occasional Papers 08/9, Ministry of Economic Development, New Zealand.
  6. Anne Otto & Dirk Fornahl, 2009. "Cohesion Policy:Methodology And Indicators Towards Common Approach," Romanian Journal of Regional Science, Romanian Regional Science Association, vol. 3(1), pages 1-35, JUNE.
  7. David Law & Bob Buckle & Dean Hyslop, 2006. "Toward a Model of Firm Productivity Dynamics," Treasury Working Paper Series 06/11, New Zealand Treasury.

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