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Concentration, Specialisation and Agglomeration of firms in New Zealand

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  • David C. Maré

    ()
    (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)

Abstract

To what extent do New Zealand firms choose to locate close to each other, and why? This paper summarises patterns of geographic concentration of firms in New Zealand between 1987 and 2003. We present a range of summary measures of own-industry concentration, and examine between-industry colocation. Overall, New Zealand employment is relatively highly concentrated, although only around 30 percent of employment is in highly concentrated industries. Around 60 percent of employment is in industries that are spread more or less in proportion to total employment. Geographic concentration across 58 Labour Market Areas (LMAs) has increased over the past 18 years, although industries have become more dispersed within LMAs. We find little evidence of a causal effect of geographic concentration of industries, or of diversity of local industry structure on employment growth or job flow rates. Rates of job creation, job destruction, and net employment growth are higher for industries that are more geographically concentrated, but the relationship disappears when we control for area and industry fixed effects. This suggests that it is not the concentration per se that is driving the high flows and employment growth, but other unobserved characteristics of areas and industries.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Motu Economic and Public Policy Research in its series Working Papers with number 05_12.

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Length: 115 pages
Date of creation: Aug 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:mtu:wpaper:05_12

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Keywords: Geographic concentration; agglomeration; business demography;

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References

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  1. Ellison, Glenn & Glaeser, Edward L, 1997. "Geographic Concentration in U.S. Manufacturing Industries: A Dartboard Approach," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(5), pages 889-927, October.
  2. Giles Duranton & Diego Puga, 2003. "Micro-Foundations of Urban Agglomeration Economies," NBER Working Papers 9931, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Henderson, J. Vernon, 2003. "Marshall's scale economies," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 1-28, January.
  4. Gilles Duranton & Henry G. Overman, 2005. "Testing for localization using micro-geographic data," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 581, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  5. Devereux, Michael P & Griffith, Rachel & Simpson, Helen, 2002. "The Geographical Distribution of Production Activity in the UK," CEPR Discussion Papers 3627, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Ottaviano, Gianmarco Ireo Paolo & Thisse, Jacques-François, 2003. "Agglomeration and Economic Geography," CEPR Discussion Papers 3838, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  7. Olga Alonso-Villar & José-María Chamorro-Rivas & Xulia González-Cerdeira, 2001. "Agglomeration economies in manufacturing industries: the case of Spain," Working Papers 0202, Universidade de Vigo, Departamento de Economía Aplicada.
  8. Guy Dumais & Glenn Ellison & Edward L. Glaeser, 2002. "Geographic Concentration As A Dynamic Process," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(2), pages 193-204, May.
  9. Steven J. Davis & John C. Haltiwanger & Scott Schuh, 1998. "Job Creation and Destruction," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262540932, December.
  10. Karl Aiginger & Stephen W. Davies, 2004. "Industrial specialisation and geographic concentration: Two sides of the same coin? Not for the European Union," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 0, pages 231-248, November.
  11. Feldman, Maryann P. & Audretsch, David B., 1999. "Innovation in cities:: Science-based diversity, specialization and localized competition," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 409-429, February.
  12. Audretsch, David B & Feldman, Maryann P, 1996. "R&D Spillovers and the Geography of Innovation and Production," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 86(3), pages 630-40, June.
  13. Rosenthal, Stuart S. & Strange, William C., 2004. "Evidence on the nature and sources of agglomeration economies," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, in: J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 49, pages 2119-2171 Elsevier.
  14. Thomas J. Holmes, 1999. "Scale of Local Production and City Size," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 317-320, May.
  15. Michael Porter, 2003. "The Economic Performance of Regions," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(6-7), pages 549-578.
  16. Nick Carroll & Dean Hyslop & David Mare & Jason Timmins & Julian Wood, 2002. "An analysis of New Zealand's business demography database," New Zealand Economic Papers, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(1), pages 59-61.
  17. Maurel, Francoise & Sedillot, Beatrice, 1999. "A measure of the geographic concentration in french manufacturing industries," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 575-604, September.
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Cited by:
  1. Maré, David, 2008. "Labour Productivity in Auckland Firms," Occasional Papers 08/9, Ministry of Economic Development, New Zealand.
  2. Mare, David & Timmins, Jason, 2007. "Geographic Concentration and Firm Productivity," Occasional Papers 07/1, Ministry of Economic Development, New Zealand.
  3. David Law & Bob Buckle & Dean Hyslop, 2006. "Toward a Model of Firm Productivity Dynamics," Treasury Working Paper Series 06/11, New Zealand Treasury.

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