Embodied carbon in trade: a survey of the empirical literature
AbstractMeasuring consumption-based emissions and the implied embodied emissions in trade (EET) has seen a resurgence in recent years, with a growing number of papers reporting country-level embodied emissions in imports and exports, as well as the net balance of embodied emissions in trade. This paper compares the quantitative results reported across studies and discusses methodological and data issues that contribute to the variability of results. In doing so, it assess the extent to which this literature overall provides a consistent empirical understanding of embodied carbon flows. Based on the assessment of the ranges of EET flows, it discusses the strengths of the conclusions drawn from the empirical literature on the various policy issues that surround the climate and trade nexus.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment in its series Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment Working Papers with number 77.
Date of creation: Apr 2012
Date of revision:
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2013-04-06 (All new papers)
- NEP-ENE-2013-04-06 (Energy Economics)
- NEP-ENV-2013-04-06 (Environmental Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Atkinson, Giles & Hamilton, Kirk & Ruta, Giovanni & Van Der Mensbrugghe, Dominique, 2010. "Trade in'virtual carbon': empirical results and implications for policy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5194, The World Bank.
- Bullard, Clark W. & Herendeen, Robert A., 1975. "The energy cost of goods and services," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 268-278, December.
- Su, Bin & Ang, B.W., 2010. "Input-output analysis of CO2 emissions embodied in trade: The effects of spatial aggregation," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 10-18, November.
- Muradian, Roldan & O'Connor, Martin & Martinez-Alier, Joan, 2002. "Embodied pollution in trade: estimating the 'environmental load displacement' of industrialised countries," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 51-67, April.
- Weber, Christopher L. & Matthews, H. Scott, 2008. "Quantifying the global and distributional aspects of American household carbon footprint," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2-3), pages 379-391, June.
- Herendeen, Robert A., 1978. "Input-output techniques and energy cost of commodities," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 162-165, June.
- Shui, Bin & Harriss, Robert C., 2006. "The role of CO2 embodiment in US-China trade," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(18), pages 4063-4068, December.
- Weber, Christopher L. & Peters, Glen P., 2009. "Climate change policy and international trade: Policy considerations in the US," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 432-440, February.
- Jean-Martial Breuil, 1992. "Input-Output Analysis and Pollutant Emissions in France," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 173-184.
- Leontief, Wassily, 1970. "Environmental Repercussions and the Economic Structure: An Input-Output Approach," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 52(3), pages 262-71, August.
- Ayres, Robert U & Kneese, Allen V, 1969. "Production , Consumption, and Externalities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(3), pages 282-97, June.
- Manfred Lenzen & Richard Wood & Thomas Wiedmann, 2010. "Uncertainty Analysis For Multi-Region Input-Output Models - A Case Study Of The Uk'S Carbon Footprint," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(1), pages 43-63.
- Wichelns, Dennis, 2001. "The role of `virtual water' in efforts to achieve food security and other national goals, with an example from Egypt," Agricultural Water Management, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 131-151, July.
- Dong Guo & Colin Webb & Norihiko Yamano, 2009. "Towards Harmonised Bilateral Trade Data for Inter-Country Input-Output Analyses: Statistical Issues," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2009/4, OECD Publishing.
- Wright, David J., 1974. "3. Good and services: an input-output analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 307-315, December.
- Weisz, Helga & Duchin, Faye, 2006.
"Physical and monetary input-output analysis: What makes the difference?,"
Elsevier, vol. 57(3), pages 534-541, May.
- Helga Weisz & Faye Duchin, 2004. "Physical and Monetary Input-Output Analysis: What Makes the Difference?," Rensselaer Working Papers in Economics 0422, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Department of Economics, revised May 2005.
- Weber, Christopher L. & Peters, Glen P. & Guan, Dabo & Hubacek, Klaus, 2008. "The contribution of Chinese exports to climate change," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(9), pages 3572-3577, September.
- Kainuma, M. & Matsuoka, Y. & Morita, T., 2000. "Estimation of embodied CO2 emissions by general equilibrium model," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 122(2), pages 392-404, April.
- Wiedmann, Thomas, 2009. "A review of recent multi-region input-output models used for consumption-based emission and resource accounting," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 211-222, December.
- Koen De Backer & Norihiko Yamano, 2007. "The Measurement of Globalisation using International Input-Output Tables," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2007/8, OECD Publishing.
- Manfred Lenzen & Lise-Lotte Pade & Jesper Munksgaard, 2004. "CO2 Multipliers in Multi-region Input-Output Models," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 391-412.
- Lenzen, Manfred & Murray, Joy & Sack, Fabian & Wiedmann, Thomas, 2007. "Shared producer and consumer responsibility -- Theory and practice," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(1), pages 27-42, February.
- Wyckoff, Andrew W. & Roop, Joseph M., 1994. "The embodiment of carbon in imports of manufactured products : Implications for international agreements on greenhouse gas emissions," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 187-194, March.
- Nadim Ahmad & Andrew Wyckoff, 2003. "Carbon Dioxide Emissions Embodied in International Trade of Goods," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2003/15, OECD Publishing.
- Wood, Richard & Lenzen, Manfred, 2009. "Structural path decomposition," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 335-341, May.
- Glen Peters & Robbie Andrew & James Lennox, 2011. "Constructing An Environmentally-Extended Multi-Regional Input-Output Table Using The Gtap Database," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 23(2), pages 131-152.
- Wiedmann, Thomas & Lenzen, Manfred, 2007. "On the conversion between local and global hectares in Ecological Footprint analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(4), pages 673-677, February.
- Thomas Wiedmann & Richard Wood & Jan Minx & Manfred Lenzen & Dabo Guan & Rocky Harris, 2010. "A Carbon Footprint Time Series Of The Uk - Results From A Multi-Region Input-Output Model," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(1), pages 19-42.
- Peters, Glen P., 2008. "From production-based to consumption-based national emission inventories," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 13-23, March.
- Robbie Andrew & Glen Peters & James Lennox, 2009. "Approximation And Regional Aggregation In Multi-Regional Input-Output Analysis For National Carbon Footprint Accounting," Economic Systems Research, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(3), pages 311-335.
- Machado, Giovani & Schaeffer, Roberto & Worrell, Ernst, 2001. "Energy and carbon embodied in the international trade of Brazil: an input-output approach," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 409-424, December.
- Common, M. S. & Salma, U., 1992. "Accounting for changes in Australian carbon dioxide emissions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 217-225, July.
- Li Hong & Pei Dong, Zhang & Chunyu, He & Wang Gang, 2007. "Evaluating the effects of embodied energy in international trade on ecological footprint in China," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 136-148, April.
- Wiedmann, Thomas & Wilting, Harry C. & Lenzen, Manfred & Lutter, Stephan & Palm, Viveka, 2011. "Quo Vadis MRIO? Methodological, data and institutional requirements for multi-region input-output analysis," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(11), pages 1937-1945, September.
- Su, Bin & Huang, H.C. & Ang, B.W. & Zhou, P., 2010. "Input-output analysis of CO2 emissions embodied in trade: The effects of sector aggregation," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 166-175, January.
- Druckman, A. & Bradley, P. & Papathanasopoulou, E. & Jackson, T., 2008. "Measuring progress towards carbon reduction in the UK," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(4), pages 594-604, July.
- Lin, Boqiang & Sun, Chuanwang, 2010. "Evaluating carbon dioxide emissions in international trade of China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 613-621, January.
- Bastianoni, Simone & Pulselli, Federico Maria & Tiezzi, Enzo, 2004. "The problem of assigning responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 253-257, July.
- Lee, Kihoon & Oh, Wankeun, 2006. "Analysis of CO2 emissions in APEC countries: A time-series and a cross-sectional decomposition using the log mean Divisia method," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(17), pages 2779-2787, November.
- Aichele, Rahel & Felbermayr, Gabriel, 2010. "Kyoto and the carbon content of trade," FZID Discussion Papers 10-2010, University of Hohenheim, Center for Research on Innovation and Services (FZID).
- Satoshi Nakano & Asako Okamura & Norihisa Sakurai & Masayuki Suzuki & Yoshiaki Tojo & Norihiko Yamano, 2009. "The Measurement of CO2 Embodiments in International Trade: Evidence from the Harmonised Input-Output and Bilateral Trade Database," OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers 2009/3, OECD Publishing.
- Lenzen, Manfred & Bhaduri, Anik & Moran, Daniel & Kanemoto, Keiichiro & Bekchanov, Maksud & Geschke, Arne & Foran, Barney, 2012. "The role of scarcity in global virtual water flows," Discussion Papers 133478, University of Bonn, Center for Development Research (ZEF).
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (The GRI Administration).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.