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R&D investment, Credit Rationing and Sample Selection

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Abstract

We study whether R&D-intensive firms are liquidity-constrained, by also modeling their antecedent decision to apply for credit. This sample selection issue is relevant when studying a borrower-lender relationship, as the same factors can influence the decisions of both parties. We find firms with no or low R&D intensity to be less likely to request extra funds. When they do, we observe a higher probability of being denied credit. Such a relationship is not supported by evidence from the R&D-intensive firms. Thus, our findings lend support to the notion of credit constraints being severe only for a sub-sample of innovative firms. Furthermore, the results suggest that the way in which the R&D activity is organized may differentially affect a firms’ probability of being credit-constrained.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Department of Economics, Loughborough University in its series Discussion Paper Series with number 2005_6.

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Date of creation: Jun 2005
Date of revision: Jun 2005
Handle: RePEc:lbo:lbowps:2005_6

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Keywords: Bivariate Probit; Innovation; selectivity; in-house R&D.;

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References

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  1. Claudio A . Piga & Marco Vivarelli, 2004. "Internal and External R&D: A Sample Selection Approach," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 66(4), pages 457-482, 09.
  2. Tether, Bruce S., 2002. "Who co-operates for innovation, and why: An empirical analysis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 947-967, August.
  3. Hall, Bronwyn H., 2002. "The Financing of Research and Development," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt34c1c643, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  4. Gianni deFraja & Claudio Piga, 2000. "Strategic Debt in Vertical Relationships," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0059, Econometric Society.
  5. Greene, William, 1998. "Sample selection in credit-scoring models1," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 299-316, July.
  6. Jeremy Berkowitz & Michelle J. White, 2004. "Bankruptcy and Small Firms' Access to Credit," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 35(1), pages 69-84, Spring.
  7. Asher Blass & Oved Yosha, 2003. "Financing R&D in mature companies: An empirical analysis," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(5), pages 425-447.
  8. Robin Boadway & Michael Keen, 2004. "Financing New Investments under Asymmetric Information: A General Approach," Working Papers 1017, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  9. Heckman, James J, 1979. "Sample Selection Bias as a Specification Error," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 153-61, January.
  10. Hellmann, Thomas & Stiglitz, Joseph, 2000. "Credit and equity rationing in markets with adverse selection," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 281-304, February.
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  12. C. Piga & M. Vivarelli, 2003. "Sample selection in estimating the determinants of cooperative R&D," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 10(4), pages 243-246.
  13. de Meza, David & Webb, David, 2000. "Does credit rationing imply insufficient lending?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(3), pages 215-234, November.
  14. Fraja, Gianni De & Piga, Claudio A. G., 2004. "Strategic debt in vertical relationships: theory and evidence," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 103-123, June.
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  19. Spiros Bougheas & Holger Görg & Eric Strobl, 2003. "Is R & D Financially Constrained? Theory and Evidence from Irish Manufacturing," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 159-174, March.
  20. Guiso, Luigi, 1997. "High-Tech Firms and Credit Rationing," CEPR Discussion Papers 1696, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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  22. Kenneth Arrow, 1962. "Economic Welfare and the Allocation of Resources for Invention," NBER Chapters, in: The Rate and Direction of Inventive Activity: Economic and Social Factors, pages 609-626 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  23. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
  24. Showalter, Dean, 1999. "Strategic debt: evidence in manufacturing," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 319-333, April.
  25. Bayona, Cristina & Garcia-Marco, Teresa & Huerta, Emilio, 2001. "Firms' motivations for cooperative R&D: an empirical analysis of Spanish firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 1289-1307, October.
  26. Bhattacharya, Sudipto & Ritter, Jay R, 1983. "Innovation and Communication: Signalling with Partial Disclosure," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 50(2), pages 331-46, April.
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  28. Diamond, Douglas W, 1991. "Monitoring and Reputation: The Choice between Bank Loans and Directly Placed Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 99(4), pages 689-721, August.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Maria Luisa Mancusi & Andrea Vezzulli, 2013. "R&D and Credit Rationing in SMEs," Working Papers Department of Economics 2013/12, ISEG - School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, University of Lisbon.
  2. Hottenrott, Hanna & Peters, Bettina, 2011. "Innovative capability and financing constraints for innovation: More money, more innovation?," ZEW Discussion Papers 09-081 [rev.], ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  3. Agustí Segarra & José García-Quevedo & Mercedes Teruel, 2013. "Financial constraints and the failure of innovation projects," Working Papers XREAP2013-01, Xarxa de Referència en Economia Aplicada (XREAP), revised Mar 2013.
  4. Savignac, F., 2007. "The impact of financial constraints on innovation: What can be learned from a direct measure?," Working papers 169, Banque de France.
  5. Morgan, Horatio M., 2013. "Entrepreneurship in the Informal Economy of Latin America and the Caribbean: A conceptual model of the finance-performance nexus," MPRA Paper 49856, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  6. Claudio A. Piga & Giuseppe Medda, 2007. "Technological Spillovers and Productivity in Italian Manufacturing Firms," Working Paper Series 08-07, The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis, revised Jul 2007.
  7. Georgios Efthyvoulou & Priit Vahter, 2012. "Financial Constraints, Innovation Performance, and Sectoral Disaggregation," Working Papers 2012030, The University of Sheffield, Department of Economics.
  8. Paola Brighi & Roberto Patuelli & Giuseppe Torluccio, 2012. "Self-Financing of Traditional and R&D Investments: Evidence from Italian SMEs," Working Paper Series 61_12, The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.
  9. Kadri Männasoo & Jaanika Meriküll, 2011. "How do demand fluctations and credit constraints affect R&D? Evidence from Central, Southern and Eastern Europe," Bank of Estonia Working Papers wp2011-09, Bank of Estonia, revised 19 Jul 2011.
  10. Georg Paula, 2010. "Financing Conditions, the Concept of Innovation Capacity and the Innovative Activity of Firms," CESifo Working Paper Series 3296, CESifo Group Munich.

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