Role of Agriculture in Achieving MDG 1 in Asia and the Pacific Region
AbstractThis paper examines whether agricultural growth through public expenditure, ODA or investment will improve significantly the prospects of achieving MDG 1 of halving poverty in Asia and the Pacific Region. As more than a few countries in this Region recorded impressive economic growth in the early years of the present decade, the case for the widely used poverty threshold of US$1.25 per day (at 2005 PPP) for assessing progress towards MDG1 is not so compelling now. Accordingly, the present assessment uses two poverty thresholds: US$2 per day and US$1.25 per day (both at 2005 PPP). Our analysis, based on country panel data, confirms robustly that increases in public agricultural expenditure, agricultural ODA, agricultural investment, or fertiliser use (as a proxy for technology), accelerate agricultural and GDP growth. Consequently, the headcount and depth of poverty indices are reduced substantially. Our simulation results show that, for halving the headcount index at US$2 per day, Asia and the Pacific region as a whole would need in 2007-13 a 56% increase in annual agricultural ODA, a 28% increase in agricultural expenditure, a 23% increase in fertiliser use or a 24% increase in agricultural investment. Aggregation of the simulation results for various groups reveals that countries in low income group, with a low level of macro governance or institutional quality, or with low ease of doing business would need larger increase in agricultural ODA, expenditure or investment to halve poverty. Although the share of agriculture in GDP has declined, our analysis reinforces the case for channelling a substantially larger flow of resources not just for accelerating growth but also for achieving the more ambitious MDG1. A policy dilemma, however, is the trade-off between institutional quality and resource transfers. National governments and donors must reflect deeply on triggers for institutional reforms and mechanisms that would ensure larger outlays for agriculture and their allocation between rural infrastructure and sustainable technologies.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University in its series Discussion Paper Series with number DP2011-01.
Length: 59 pages
Date of creation: Jan 2011
Date of revision:
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More information through EDIRC
Millennium Development Goal; Poverty; Agriculture; ODA; Investment; Public Expenditure; Asia; Panel Data; Simulations;
Other versions of this item:
- Raghav Gaiha & Katsushi S. Imai & Ganesh Thapa, 2011. "Role of Agriculture in Achieving MDG 1 in Asia and the Pacific Region," The School of Economics Discussion Paper Series 1104, Economics, The University of Manchester.
- C31 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models
- C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
- H53 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Government Expenditures and Welfare Programs
- I32 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Measurement and Analysis of Poverty
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-AGR-2011-03-26 (Agricultural Economics)
- NEP-ALL-2011-03-26 (All new papers)
- NEP-CMP-2011-03-26 (Computational Economics)
- NEP-CWA-2011-03-26 (Central & Western Asia)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
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"Dollar a day revisited,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
4620, The World Bank.
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- Raabe, Katharina, 2011.
"The Dynamics of Service Delivery and Agricultural Development in India - A District-Level Analysis -,"
Proceedings of the German Development Economics Conference, Berlin 2011
68, Verein für Socialpolitik, Research Committee Development Economics.
- Raabe, Katharina, 2011. "The Dynamics of Service Delivery and Agricultural Development in India – A District Level Analysis –," 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland 114783, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
- Raghav Gaiha & Md Shafiul Azam & Samuel Annim & Katsushi S. Imai, 2012.
"Agriculture, Markets and Poverty – A Comparative Analysis of Laos and Cambodia,"
The School of Economics Discussion Paper Series
1227, Economics, The University of Manchester.
- Raghav Gaiha & Md Shafiul Azam & Samuel Annim & Katsushi S. Imai, 2012. "Agriculture, Markets and Poverty - A Comparative Analysis of Laos and Cambodia," Discussion Paper Series DP2012-28, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University.
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