What motivates female operators to enter the garment industry in Pakistan in the post-MFA period?
AbstractPakistan's knitwear exports had been struggling since the quota phase-out until 2009. A particular feature of Pakistan's garment industry is that hiring more male sewing operators at piece rates. Recently, a few surviving knitwear factories have adopted a strategy of shifting from male piece-rate operators to salaried female operators. In Pakistan, female participation in general workforce is very limited and hiring salaried female operators requires management effort and expertise. However, even in the factories with such management skills, household factors prevent females from working outside because Pakistani culture disrespects women working in factories. Our survey reveals that financial motives compel female household members to work outside their homes and that female operators contribute substantially to their households' finances.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO) in its series IDE Discussion Papers with number 374.
Date of creation: Dec 2012
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in IDE Discussion Paper. No. 374. 2012.12
Postal: Publication Office, IDE 3-2-2 Wakaba, Mihama-ku, Chiba-shi, Chiba 261-8545 JAPAN
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- F16 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Labor Market Interactions
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
- O53 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies - - - Asia including Middle East
- D22 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis
- F66 - International Economics - - Economic Impacts of Globalization - - - Labor
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Patrick Bolton & Mathias Dewatripont, 2005.
MIT Press Books,
The MIT Press,
edition 1, volume 1, number 0262025760, January.
- Juan Carlos Hallak & Peter K. Schott, 2008.
"Estimating Cross-Country Differences in Product Quality,"
NBER Working Papers
13807, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Juan Carlos Hallak & Peter K. Schott, 2011. "Estimating Cross-Country Differences in Product Quality," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 126(1), pages 417-474.
- Baland, Jean-Marie & Dreze, Jean & Leruth, Luc, 1999.
"Daily wages and piece rates in agrarian economies,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 445-461, August.
- Yasuyuki SAWADA & Kensuke KUBO & Nobuhiko FUWA & Seiro ITO & Takashi KUROSAKI, 2006. "On The Mother And Child Labor Nexus Under Credit Constraints: Findings From Rural India," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 44(4), pages 465-499.
- Nargis Sultana & Hina Nazli & Sohail J. Malik, 1994. "Determinants of Female Time Allocation in Selected Districts of Rural Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 33(4), pages 1141-1153.
- Eatzaz Ahmad, 2007. "Labour Supply and Earning Functions of Educated Married Women: A Case Study of Northern Punjab," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 46(1), pages 45-62.
- Itoh, Hideshi, 1991. "Incentives to Help in Multi-agent Situations," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(3), pages 611-36, May.
- Rashid Amjad, 2005. "Skills and Competitiveness: Can Pakistan Break Out of the Low-Level Skills Trap?," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 44(4), pages 387-409.
- Joshua D. Angrist & William N. Evans, 1996.
"Children and Their Parents' Labor Supply: Evidence from Exogenous Variation in Family Size,"
NBER Working Papers
5778, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Angrist, Joshua D & Evans, William N, 1998. "Children and Their Parents' Labor Supply: Evidence from Exogenous Variation in Family Size," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 450-77, June.
- Toseef Azid & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Adnan M.S. Alamasi, 2010. "Labor force participation of married women in Punjab (Pakistan)," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 37(8), pages 592-612, July.
- Lazear, Edward P, 1986. "Salaries and Piece Rates," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(3), pages 405-31, July.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Marie Kobayashi).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.