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What motivates female operators to enter the garment industry in Pakistan in the post-MFA period?

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  • Makino, Momoe

Abstract

Pakistan's knitwear exports had been struggling since the quota phase-out until 2009. A particular feature of Pakistan's garment industry is that hiring more male sewing operators at piece rates. Recently, a few surviving knitwear factories have adopted a strategy of shifting from male piece-rate operators to salaried female operators. In Pakistan, female participation in general workforce is very limited and hiring salaried female operators requires management effort and expertise. However, even in the factories with such management skills, household factors prevent females from working outside because Pakistani culture disrespects women working in factories. Our survey reveals that financial motives compel female household members to work outside their homes and that female operators contribute substantially to their households' finances.

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File URL: http://ir.ide.go.jp/dspace/bitstream/2344/1193/1/ARRIDE_Discussion_No.374_makino.pdf
File Function: First version, 2012
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO) in its series IDE Discussion Papers with number 374.

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Date of creation: Dec 2012
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Publication status: Published in IDE Discussion Paper. No. 374. 2012.12
Handle: RePEc:jet:dpaper:dpaper374

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Related research

Keywords: Pakistan; Apparel industry; Female labor; Garment industry; Post-MFA; Female labor participation;

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References

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  1. Patrick Bolton & Mathias Dewatripont, 2005. "Contract Theory," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262025760, January.
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  8. Rashid Amjad, 2005. "Skills and Competitiveness: Can Pakistan Break Out of the Low-Level Skills Trap?," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 44(4), pages 387-409.
  9. Joshua D. Angrist & William N. Evans, 1996. "Children and Their Parents' Labor Supply: Evidence from Exogenous Variation in Family Size," NBER Working Papers 5778, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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