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Immigrant Child Poverty in Scandinavia: A Panel Data Study

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Author Info

  • Galloway, Taryn Ann

    ()
    (Statistics Norway)

  • Gustafsson, Björn Anders

    ()
    (University of Gothenburg)

  • Pedersen, Peder J.

    ()
    (Aarhus University)

  • Österberg, Torun

    ()
    (University of Gothenburg)

Abstract

Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway and Sweden 1993 to 2001 is investigated using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years investigated the increasing proportion of immigrant children with an origin in middle and low income countries have poverty risks that varies from 38 and up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period one third of the poor children in Norway have an immigrant origin, and that corresponding proportion is as high as about a half in Denmark as well as in Sweden. The strong overrepresentation of immigrant children from low and middle income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country, and typically decreases with years since immigration. Multivariate analysis shows that parents years since immigration and education affect risks of the number of periods in persistent poverty. While a native child is very unlikely to spend nine years in poverty, the corresponding risk for a child to a newly arrived immigrant from Turkey was found to be far from negligible. Much of the pattern is similar across the three countries but there are also some differences.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 4232.

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Length: 42 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp4232

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Keywords: child poverty; immigration; Denmark; Norway; Sweden;

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References

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  1. Michael Fertig & Marcus Tamm & Miles Corak, 2005. "A Portrait of Child Poverty in Germany," RWI Discussion Papers 0026, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung.
  2. Jorgen Hansen & Roger Wahlberg, 2009. "Poverty and its persistence: a comparison of natives and immigrants in Sweden," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 7(2), pages 105-132, June.
  3. Taryn Ann Galloway & Rolf Aaberge, 2005. "Assimilation effects on poverty among immigrants in Norway," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 18(4), pages 691-718, November.
  4. Pedersen, Peder J., 2000. "Immigration in a High Unemployment Economy: The Recent Danish Experience," IZA Discussion Papers 165, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Blume Jensen, Kræn & Gustafsson, Björn Anders & Pedersen, Peder J. & Verner, Mette, 2005. "At the Lower End of the Table: Determinants of Poverty among Immigrants to Denmark and Sweden," IZA Discussion Papers 1551, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  6. Chiswick, Barry R. & Lee, Yew Liang & Miller, Paul W., 2005. "Immigrant Earnings: A Longitudinal Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 1750, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  7. Pedersen, Peder J. & Smith, Nina, 2001. "International Migration and Migration policy in Denmark," CLS Working Papers 01-5, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Centre for Labour Market and Social Research.
  8. Deborah Roseveare & Martin Jorgensen, 2004. "Migration and Integration of Immigrants in Denmark," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 386, OECD Publishing.
  9. Wen-Hao Chen & Miles Corak, 2008. "Child poverty and changes in child poverty," Demography, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 537-553, August.
  10. Carlsson, Magnus & Rooth, Dan-Olof, 2007. "Evidence of ethnic discrimination in the Swedish labor market using experimental data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(4), pages 716-729, August.
  11. Knut R¯ed & Oddbj¯rn Raaum, 2003. "Administrative registers - Unexplored reservoirs of Scientific Knowledge?," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(488), pages F258-F281, 06.
  12. Erling Barth & Bernt Bratsberg & Oddbj¯rn Raaum, 2004. "Identifying Earnings Assimilation of Immigrants under Changing Macroeconomic Conditions," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 106(1), pages 1-22, 03.
  13. Mats Hammarstedt & Ghazi Shukur, 2006. "Immigrants' Relative Earnings in Sweden - A Cohort Analysis," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 20(2), pages 285-323, 06.
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Cited by:
  1. Lindquist, Matthew J. & Sjögren Lindquist, Gabriella, 2008. "The Dynamics of Child Poverty in Sweden," Working Paper Series 4/2008, Swedish Institute for Social Research.

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