Tobacco and Alcohol: Complements or Substitutes? A Structural Model Approach
AbstractThe question of whether two drugs – namely alcohol and tobacco – are used as complements or substitutes is of crucial interest if side-effects of anti-smoking policies are considered. Numerous papers have empirically addressed this issue by estimating demand systems for alcohol and tobacco and subsequently calculating cross-price effects. However, this traditional approach often is seriously hampered by insufficient price-variation observed in survey data. We therefore suggest an alternative instrumental variables approach that statistically mimics an experimental study and does not rely on prices as explanatory variables. This approach is applied to German survey data. Our estimation results suggest that a reduction in tobacco consumption results in a moderate reduction in alcohol consumption. It is shown theoretically that this implies that alcohol and tobacco are complements. Hence, we conclude that successful anti-smoking policies will not result in the unintended side-effect of an increased (ab)use of alcohol.
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Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 3412.
Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2008
Date of revision:
Publication status: published online as 'Tobacco and alcohol: complements or substitutes? A structural model approach to insufficient price variation in individual-level data' in: Empirical Economics, 2012, [Online First]
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Other versions of this item:
- Göhlmann, Silja & Requate, Till & Schmidt, Christoph M & Tauchmann, Harald, 2008. "Tobacco and Alcohol: Complements or Substitutes? A Structural Model Approach," CEPR Discussion Papers 6780, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Harald Tauchmann & Silja Göhlmann & Till Requate & Christoph M. Schmidt, 2007. "Tobacco and Alcohol: Complements or Substitutes? – A Structural Model Approach," Ruhr Economic Papers 0034, Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, Universität Dortmund, Universität Duisburg-Essen.
- C31 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Cross-Sectional Models; Spatial Models; Treatment Effect Models; Quantile Regressions; Social Interaction Models
- D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
- I12 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Health - - - Health Production
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2008-04-04 (All new papers)
- NEP-BEC-2008-04-04 (Business Economics)
- NEP-HEA-2008-04-04 (Health Economics)
- NEP-MKT-2008-04-04 (Marketing)
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