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Tobacco and Alcohol: Complements or Substitutes? - A Statistical Guinea Pig Approach

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Author Info

  • Harald Tauchmann

    ()

  • Silja Göhlmann

    ()

  • Till Requate
  • Chistoph M. Schmidt

    ()

Abstract

The question of whether two drugs – namely alcohol and tobacco – are used as complements or substitutes is of crucial interest if side-effects of anti-drug policies are considered. Numerous papers have empirically addressed this issue by estimating demand systems for alcohol and tobacco and subsequently calculating cross-price effects. However, this traditional approach often is seriously hampered by insufficient price-variation observed in survey data. We, therefore, suggest an alternative instrumental variables approach that statistically mimics an experimental study and does not rely on prices as explanatory variables. This approach is applied to German survey data. Our estimation results suggest that a reduction in tobacco consumption results in a reduction in alcohol consumption, too. It is shown theoretically that this implies that alcohol and tobacco are complements. Hence, we conclude that successful antismoking policies will not result in the unintended side-effect of an increased (ab)use of alcohol.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Rheinisch-Westfälisches Institut für Wirtschaftsforschung in its series RWI Discussion Papers with number 0052.

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Length: 37 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2006
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Handle: RePEc:rwi:dpaper:0052

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Keywords: Interdependence in consumption; tobacco and alcohol; instrumental variables approach;

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References

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  1. Steven T. Yen, 2005. "A Multivariate Sample-Selection Model: Estimating Cigarette and Alcohol Demands with Zero Observations," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(2), pages 453-466.
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  6. Jenny Williams & Rosalie Liccardo Pacula & Frank J. Chaloupka & Henry Wechsler, 2001. "Alcohol and Marijuana Use Among College Students: Economic Complements or Substitutes?," NBER Working Papers 8401, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Smith, Richard J & Blundell, Richard W, 1986. "An Exogeneity Test for a Simultaneous Equation Tobit Model with an Application to Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 679-85, May.
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  11. Bask, Mikael & Melkersson, Maria, 2001. "Rationally Addicted to Drinking and Smoking?," UmeÃ¥ Economic Studies 567, Umeå University, Department of Economics.
  12. Wasserman, Jeffrey & Manning, Willard G. & Newhouse, Joseph P. & Winkler, John D., 1991. "The effects of excise taxes and regulations on cigarette smoking," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 43-64, May.
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  14. Cameron, Lisa & Williams, Jenny, 2001. "Cannabis, Alcohol and Cigarettes: Substitutes or Complements?," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 77(236), pages 19-34, March.
  15. Florkowski, Wojciech J. & McNamara, Kevin T., 1992. "Policy implications of alcohol and tobacco demand in Poland," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 93-98, February.
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  17. Davis, George C. & Kim, Sung-Yong, 2002. "Measuring instrument relevance in the single endogenous regressor-multiple instrument case: a simplifying procedure," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 74(3), pages 321-325, February.
  18. Nelson, Forrest & Olson, Lawrence, 1978. "Specification and Estimation of a Simultaneous-Equation Model with Limited Dependent Variables," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 19(3), pages 695-709, October.
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Cited by:
  1. Pierpaolo Pierani & Silvia Tiezzi, 2009. "Addiction and interaction between alcohol and tobacco consumption," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 1-23, September.
  2. Schmidt, Christoph M. & Tauchmann, Harald, 2011. "Heterogeneity in the intergenerational transmission of alcohol consumption: A quantile regression approach," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 33-42, January.

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