Self-Employment and Parenthood: Exploring the Impact of Partners, Children and Gender
AbstractThis paper explores the relationship between self-employment, partner’s employment, the household and children on a mother’s and father’s probability to choose self-employment. Few studies are available on this topic and their analysis is mainly limited to the female role in the North American context. In this study, we examine the influence of personal characteristics, household and labor market characteristics for both mothers and fathers in a family context and their probability to be self-employed as compared to parents who have chosen formal, gainful employment. We focus on the data from the European context comparing results from Spain, Italy and the Netherlands. Using these large and comparable data sets, our logit model estimates show that mothers who choose self-employment do not work fewer working hours than those in gainful employment. Similar results were found for fathers in Spain and Italy. Perhaps the most striking result is the very strong significance of the partner’s self-employed status on the choice for self-employment for both mothers and fathers in all three countries. Other effects such as human capital, household income, presence of grandmothers and number of young children indicate country differences.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 2813.
Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: May 2007
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- M13 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting - - Business Administration - - - New Firms; Startups
- J24 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Human Capital; Skills; Occupational Choice; Labor Productivity
- J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
- J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2007-06-30 (All new papers)
- NEP-EEC-2007-06-30 (European Economics)
- NEP-ENT-2007-06-30 (Entrepreneurship)
- NEP-LAB-2007-06-30 (Labour Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Siv Gustafsson & Eiko Kenjoh & Cecile Wetzels, 2001. "Employment Choices and Pay Differences between Non-Standard and Standard Work in Britain, Germany, Netherlands and Sweden," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 01-086/3, Tinbergen Institute.
- David Blau & Philip Robins, 1989. "Fertility, Employment, and Child-Care Costs," Demography, Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 287-299, May.
- Henrekson, Magnus & Du Rietz, Anita, 1999.
"Testing the Female Underperformance Hypothesis,"
Working Paper Series
521, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Blanchflower, David G & Meyer, Bruce D, 1994. " A Longitudinal Analysis of the Young Self-Employed in Australia and the United States," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 6(1), pages 1-19, February.
- Frederic Delmar & Per Davidsson, 2000. "Where do they come from? Prevalence and characteristics of nascent entrepreneurs," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(1), pages 1-23, January.
- DeMartino, Richard & Barbato, Robert, 2003. "Differences between women and men MBA entrepreneurs: exploring family flexibility and wealth creation as career motivators," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(6), pages 815-832, November.
- Rachel Connelly, 1992. "Self-employment and providing child care," Demography, Springer, vol. 29(1), pages 17-29, February.
- Daniela del Boca & Marilena Locatelli & Silvia Pasqua, 2000.
"Employment Decisions of Married Women: Evidence and Explanations,"
CHILD Working Papers
wp08_00, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
- Daniela Del Boca & Marilena Locatelli & Silvia Pasqua, 2000. "Employment Decisions of Married Women: Evidence and Explanations," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 14(1), pages 35-52, 03.
- Orley Ashenfelter & James Heckman, 1971.
"The Estimation of Income and Substitution Effects in a Model of Family Labor Supply,"
402, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Ashenfelter, Orley & Heckman, James J, 1974. "The Estimation of Income and Substitution Effects in a Model of Family Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 42(1), pages 73-85, January.
- Susan Marlow, 1997. "Self--employed women — new opportunities, old challenges?," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(3), pages 199-210, January.
- Garcia-Mainar, Inmaculada & Montuenga-Gomez, Victor M., 2005. "Education returns of wage earners and self-employed workers: Portugal vs. Spain," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 161-170, April.
- Cecile Wetzels, 2005. "Supply and Price of Childcare and Female Labour Force Participation in the Netherlands," LABOUR, CEIS, vol. 19(s1), pages 171-209, December.
- Cooper, Arnold C. & Gimeno-Gascon, F. Javier & Woo, Carolyn Y., 1994. "Initial human and financial capital as predictors of new venture performance," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 9(5), pages 371-395, September.
- Lerner, Miri & Brush, Candida & Hisrich, Robert, 1997. "Israeli women entrepreneurs: An examination of factors affecting performance," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 315-339, July.
- Holly Buttner, E., 1993. "Female entrepreneurs: How far have they come?," Business Horizons, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 59-65.
- Bögenhold, Dieter & Fachinger, Uwe, 2013.
"Weibliche Solo-Selbstständigkeit zwischen Notwendigkeit und Innovationsherausforderung: Beobachtungen über Geschlecht und Unternehmertum in Deutschland
[Female Solo-Self-Employment Between Necess," MPRA Paper 51460, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Oliveira, Belkis & Moriano, Juan & Soares, Vasco, 2012. "Estudo exploratório das diferenças na Intenção Empreendedora entre Homens e Mulheres em Portugal: o Caso dos Jovens Universitários do Norte de Portugal," Working Papers 24/2012, Universidade Portucalense, Centro de Investigação em Gestão e Economia (CIGE).
- Anna Matysiak & Monika Mynarska, 2013. "Women’s self-employment in Poland: A strategy for combining work and childcare?," Working Papers 68, Institute of Statistics and Demography, Warsaw School of Economics.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.