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Weibliche Solo-Selbstständigkeit zwischen Notwendigkeit und Innovationsherausforderung: Beobachtungen über Geschlecht und Unternehmertum in Deutschland
[Female Solo-Self-Employment Between Necessity and Innovation Challenge: Observations on Gender and Entrepreneurship in Germany]

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Author Info

  • Bögenhold, Dieter
  • Fachinger, Uwe

Abstract

The paper combines conceptual thoughts on the development of self-employment within stratified modern societies with empirical reflections based on public census data for Germany. Talk about the rise and future of self-employment must be linked to the discussion about changes in the structure of occupations, labour markets and regulations. The more or less steady increase of the service sector as well as the continuous rise of the liberal professions mirror changes within the category of self-employment. All different items are embedded into a general trend of a growing knowledge society. A fundamental question is how gender matters when investigating these trends. Do we find specific “gender patterns” within recent developments of an increasing expansion of self-employment e.g. in Germany, or will the new chances and risks lead to a greater equality of opportunities? Is the increase of solo-self-employment of females driven by the need to earn a living, or is it the result of females taking the risk e.g. to become more economically independent? Prima facie, we learn to acknowledge that the rise of self-employment is mostly supported by the rise of micro-firms and solo-self-employment, of which especially solo-self-employment is a female domain. The independent liberal professions also indicate a significant revival of female labour. The research tries to delve deeper into the different segments of the employment system and to connect empirical findings with the theoretical discussion on professional groups in modern capitalist societies. One basic question is whether female solo-self-employment is primarily driven by necessity in order to take part in the labour market or if those emerging activities reflect new innovative modes of labour market integration and reveal new opportunities and markets which are, in wide parts, especially due to the development of the service and health care sector.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 51460.

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Date of creation: 2013
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:51460

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Keywords: Weibliche Solo-Selbständigkeit; Gender; freiberufliche Tätigkeit;

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References

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  1. Bögenhold, Dieter & Fachinger, Uwe, 2010. "How Diverse is Entrepreneurship? Observations on the social heterogeneity of self-employment in Germany," MPRA Paper 23271, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Poschke, Markus, 2010. ""Entrepreneurs out of Necessity": A Snapshot," IZA Discussion Papers 4893, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Yannis Georgellis & Howard J. Wall, 2004. "Gender differences in self-employment," Working Papers 1999-008, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
  4. F. van Es & D. J. van Vuuren, 2011. "A decomposition of the growth in self-employment," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(17), pages 1665-1669.
  5. André van Stel & Ingrid Verheul, 2007. "Entrepreneurial diversity and economic growth," Scales Research Reports H200701, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  6. Zoltan Acs & Sameeksha Desai & Jolanda Hessels, 2008. "Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 219-234, October.
  7. Clain, Suzanne Heller, 2000. "Gender differences in full-time self-employment," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(6), pages 499-513.
  8. Verheul, Ingrid & Thurik, Roy & Grilo, Isabel & van der Zwan, Peter, 2012. "Explaining preferences and actual involvement in self-employment: Gender and the entrepreneurial personality," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 325-341.
  9. Jean Bonnet & Marcus Dejardin & Antonia Madrid-Guijarro, 2012. "Toward the Entrepreneurial Society," Economics Working Paper Archive (University of Rennes 1 & University of Caen) 201231, Center for Research in Economics and Management (CREM), University of Rennes 1, University of Caen and CNRS.
  10. Audretsch, David B., 2007. "The Entrepreneurial Society," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195183504, Octomber.
  11. Rosalie L Tung & Alain Verbeke, 2010. "Beyond Hofstede and GLOBE: Improving the quality of cross-cultural research," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 41(8), pages 1259-1274, October.
  12. Andersson, Pernilla, 2008. "Happiness and health: Well-being among the self-employed," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 213-236, February.
  13. Thomas Leoni & Martin Falk, 2010. "Gender and field of study as determinants of self-employment," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 167-185, February.
  14. Maria Minniti, 2010. "Female Entrepreneurship and Economic Activity," The European Journal of Development Research, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 22(3), pages 294-312, July.
  15. Aidis, Ruta & Wetzels, Cécile, 2007. "Self-Employment and Parenthood: Exploring the Impact of Partners, Children and Gender," IZA Discussion Papers 2813, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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