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The Effect of Family Structure on Parents' Child Care Time in the United States and the United Kingdom

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Author Info

  • Kalenkoski, Charlene M.

    ()
    (Texas Tech University)

  • Ribar, David C.

    ()
    (University of Melbourne)

  • Stratton, Leslie S.

    ()
    (Virginia Commonwealth University)

Abstract

We use time-diary data from the 2003 and 2004 American Time Use Surveys and the 2000 United Kingdom Time Use Study to estimate the effect of family structure on the time mothers and fathers spend on primary and passive child care and on market work, using a system of correlated Tobit equations and family structure equations. Estimates from these models indicate that single parents in both countries spend more time in child care than married or cohabiting parents. There are differences, however, in market work with single parents in the U.S. working more than other parents and single parents in the U.K. working less.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 2441.

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Length: 47 pages
Date of creation: Nov 2006
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Review of Economics of the Household, 2007, 5 (4), 353-384
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2441

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Keywords: family structure; child care; time use;

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References

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  1. Hallberg, Daniel & Klevmarken, Anders, 2001. "Time for Children, a Study of Parents’ Time Allocation," Working Paper Series, Uppsala University, Department of Economics 2001:21, Uppsala University, Department of Economics.
  2. Weiss, Yoram & Willis, Robert J, 1985. "Children as Collective Goods and Divorce Settlements," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(3), pages 268-92, July.
  3. Weiss, Yoram, 1993. "The formation and dissolution of families: Why marry? Who marries whom? And what happens upon divorce," Handbook of Population and Family Economics, Elsevier, in: M. R. Rosenzweig & Stark, O. (ed.), Handbook of Population and Family Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 3, pages 81-123 Elsevier.
  4. Kooreman, P. & Kapteyn, A.J., 1987. "A disaggregrated analysis of the allocation of time within the household," Open Access publications from Tilburg University, Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-364357, Tilburg University.
  5. Suzanne Bianchi, 2000. "Maternal employment and time with children: Dramatic change or surprising continuity?," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 37(4), pages 401-414, November.
  6. Datcher-Loury, Linda, 1988. "Effects of Mother's Home Time on Children's Schooling," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 70(3), pages 367-73, August.
  7. Becker, Gary S, 1985. "Human Capital, Effort, and the Sexual Division of Labor," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages S33-58, January.
  8. Walter Y. Oi, 1962. "Labor as a Quasi-Fixed Factor," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70, pages 538.
  9. Juster, F Thomas & Stafford, Frank P, 1991. "The Allocation of Time: Empirical Findings, Behavioral Models, and Problems of Measurement," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 29(2), pages 471-522, June.
  10. Jonathan Gershuny & John Robinson, 1988. "Historical changes in the household division of labor," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 25(4), pages 537-552, November.
  11. Nancy Folbre & Jayoung Yoon & Kade Finnoff & Allison Fuligni, 2005. "By what measure? family time devoted to children in the united states," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 42(2), pages 373-390, May.
  12. Mroz, Thomas A., 1999. "Discrete factor approximations in simultaneous equation models: Estimating the impact of a dummy endogenous variable on a continuous outcome," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 92(2), pages 233-274, October.
  13. Hotz, V-J & Kerman, J-A & Willis, R-J, 1996. "The Economics of Fertility in Developed Countries : A Survey," Papers, RAND - Labor and Population Program 96-09, RAND - Labor and Population Program.
  14. Charlene M. Kalenkoski & David C. Ribar & Leslie S. Stratton, 2005. "Parental Child Care in Single-Parent, Cohabiting, and Married-Couple Families: Time-Diary Evidence from the United Kingdom," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 194-198, May.
  15. Jean Kimmel & Rachel Connelly, 2007. "Mothers’ Time Choices: Caregiving, Leisure, Home Production, and Paid Work," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 42(3).
  16. Grossbard-Shechtman, Shoshana Amyra, 1984. "A Theory of Allocation of Time in Markets for Labour and Marriage," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 94(376), pages 863-82, December.
  17. Robert Haveman & Barbara Wolfe, 1995. "The Determinants of Children's Attainments: A Review of Methods and Findings," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 33(4), pages 1829-1878, December.
  18. Nancy Folbre & Jayoung Yoon & Kade Finnoff & Allison Sidle Fuligni, 2004. "By What Measure? Family Time Devoted to Children in the U.S," UMASS Amherst Economics Working Papers, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics 2004-06, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Economics.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Zaiceva, Anzelika & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2010. "Do Ethnic Minorities "Stretch" Their Time? Evidence from the UK Time Use Survey," IZA Discussion Papers 4910, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  2. Charlene Kalenkoski & Gigi Foster, 2008. "The quality of time spent with children in Australian households," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 243-266, September.
  3. Zaiceva, Anzelika & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2007. "Children, Kitchen, Church: Does Ethnicity Matter?," IZA Discussion Papers 3070, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Maria Gutiérrez-Domènech, 2010. "Parental employment and time with children in Spain," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 371-391, September.
  5. Jennifer Foster & Charlene Kalenkoski, 2010. "The Multitasking of Household Production," Discussion Papers, School of Economics, The University of New South Wales 2010-02, School of Economics, The University of New South Wales.
  6. Berenice Monna & Anne Gauthier, 2008. "A Review of the Literature on the Social and Economic Determinants of Parental Time," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, Springer, vol. 29(4), pages 634-653, December.
  7. Harley FRAZIS & Jay STEWART, 2012. "How to Think About Time-Use Data : What Inferences Can We Make About Long and Short-Run Time Use from Time Diaries ?," Annales d'Economie et de Statistique, ENSAE, issue 105-106, pages 11.
  8. Antecol, Heather & Steinberger, Michael D., 2009. "Female Labor Supply Differences by Sexual Orientation: A Semi-Parametric Decomposition Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 4029, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  9. Lozano, Fernando A., 2012. "What Happened to God's Time? The Evolution of Secularism and Hours of Work in America, Evidence from Religious Holidays," IZA Discussion Papers 6552, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. C. Barnet-Verzat & A. Pailhé & A. Solaz, 2011. "Spending time together: the impact of children on couples’ leisure synchronization," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, Springer, vol. 9(4), pages 465-486, December.
  11. Ana Moro-Egido, 2012. "Changing Trends of Mothers’ Active and Passive Childcare Times," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, Springer, vol. 33(1), pages 11-23, March.
  12. Connelly, Rachel & Kimmel, Jean, 2007. "Spousal Influences on Parents' Non-Market Time Choices," IZA Discussion Papers 2894, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  13. Anne Winkler & Thomas Ireland, 2009. "Time Spent in Household Management: Evidence and Implications," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 293-304, September.
  14. Gimenez-Nadal, Jose Ignacio & Marcén, Miriam & Molina, José Alberto, 2007. "How Does the Presence of Children Affect Dependent Care? A Psycho-Economic Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 2726, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  15. Anzelika Zaiceva & Klaus Zimmermann, 2011. "Do ethnic minorities “stretch” their time? UK household evidence on multitasking," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 181-206, June.
  16. Karen Conway & Minghua Li, 2012. "Family structure and child outcomes: a high definition, wide angle “snapshot”," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 345-374, September.

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  1. Papers and articles using the American Time Use Survey (ATUS)

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