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Is Mothers' Time With Their Children Home Production or Leisure?

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  • Kimmel, Jean

    ()
    (Western Michigan University)

  • Connelly, Rachel

    ()
    (Bowdoin College)

Abstract

As mothers have increased their paid work efforts, conflicts between employment and family responsibilities have grown. This evolution has led researchers to explore more fully the role that caregiving responsibilities play in mothers’ time choices. We study this issue using data from the 2003 American Time Use Survey. We estimate a simultaneous four-equation system in which the dependent variables are the number of minutes in a mother’s diary day that she devotes to home production, leisure, market work, and caregiving. The first goal of this estimation is to determine if time spent with children responds to prices and demographics more like home production time or leisure. The second goal is to glean a better understanding of the importance that marital status, race, and other demographic factors play in time choices, once economic factors are controlled. Our final goal is to improve upon the existing time use literature by estimating a structural time use model that produces explicit estimates of wage and child care price elasticities. Our results show that mothers’ time with their children does not respond to price or demographic changes much like home production or leisure and that, somewhat surprisingly, the caregiving choice responds most like paid labor particularly in the response to higher wages.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) in its series IZA Discussion Papers with number 2058.

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Length: 51 pages
Date of creation: Mar 2006
Date of revision:
Publication status: published in: Journal of Human Resources, 2007, 42(3), 643-81
Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp2058

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Keywords: time allocation; child care;

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References

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  1. Klevmarken, N. Anders, 2005. "Estimates of a labour supply function using alternative measures of hours of work," European Economic Review, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 55-73, January.
  2. Connelly, Rachel & DeGraff, Deborah S & Levison, Deborah, 1996. "Women's Employment and Child Care in Brazil," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 44(3), pages 619-56, April.
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  11. Apps, Patricia, 2004. "Gender, time use, and models of the household," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3233, The World Bank.
  12. Kooreman, P. & Kapteyn, A.J., 1987. "A disaggregrated analysis of the allocation of time within the household," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-364357, Tilburg University.
  13. Victoria Prowse, 2004. "Estimating Time Demand Elasticities Under Rationing," Economics Papers 2004-W22, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  14. Charlene M. Kalenkoski & David C. Ribar & Leslie S. Stratton, 2006. "Parental Child Care in Single Parent, Cohabiting, and Married Couple Families: Time Diary Evidence from the United States and the United Kingdom," Economics Working Paper Archive, Levy Economics Institute wp_440, Levy Economics Institute.
  15. Rachel Connelly & Jean Kimmel, 2003. "The Effect of Child Care Costs on the Employment and Welfare Recipiency of Single Mothers," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 69(3), pages 498-519, January.
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  18. Peter Howie & John Wicks & John Fitzgerald & Douglas Dalenberg & Rachel Connelly, 2006. "Mothers' time spent in care of their children and market work: a simultaneous model with attitudes as instruments," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(8), pages 503-506.
  19. Thomas Mroz, . "The Sensitivity of an Empirical Model of Married Women's Hours of Work to Economic and Statistical Assumptions," University of Chicago - Population Research Center, Chicago - Population Research Center 84-8, Chicago - Population Research Center.
  20. Charlene M. Kalenkoski & David C. Ribar & Leslie S. Stratton, 2005. "Parental Child Care in Single-Parent, Cohabiting, and Married-Couple Families: Time-Diary Evidence from the United Kingdom," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 95(2), pages 194-198, May.
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Cited by:
  1. Victoria Vernon, 2010. "Marriage: for love, for money…and for time?," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 433-457, December.
  2. Agenor, Pierre-Richard & Canuto, Otaviano & da Silva, Luiz Pereira, 2010. "On gender and growth : the role of intergenerational health externalities and women's occupational constraints," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5492, The World Bank.

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  1. Papers and articles using the American Time Use Survey (ATUS)

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