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A Fixed Effect Model of Endogenous Integration Decision and Its Competitive Effects

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  • Kerem Cakirer

    (Department of Business Economics and Public Policy, Indiana University Kelley School of Business)

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    Abstract

    This paper studies endogenous integration decisions of firms and its competitive effects in a complementary market setting where downstream firms sell a product which must have a compatible variety of products that are supplied by upstream firms. I present the conditions under which a downstream firm will prefer integrating with an upstream firm, and conditions under a counter merger of firms occur. The analysis shows that a vertical merger is more likely to occur whenever one of the upstream firm is significantly productive than the other. Competitive effect of a integration of two firms can lead to a counter integration of rivals post integration. Counter integration is likely whenever both upstream firms are highly productive. In addition to a vertical merger and two vertical mergers, contracting under independent ownership can also be the method of procuring. As a result, no integration activity can be observed. The results are obtained in a general two downstream firms and two upstream firms market setting that allows efficient compatibility contracts between upstream and downstream producers.

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    File URL: http://www.bus.indiana.edu/riharbau/RePEc/iuk/wpaper/bepp2007-18-cakirer.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Indiana University, Kelley School of Business, Department of Business Economics and Public Policy in its series Working Papers with number 2007-18.

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    Date of creation: Nov 2007
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    Handle: RePEc:iuk:wpaper:2007-18

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    Keywords: Endogenous Vertical Integration; Positive Externality; Complementary Products; Product Variety;

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    1. Salinger, Michael A, 1988. "Vertical Mergers and Market Foreclosure," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 103(2), pages 345-56, May.
    2. Farrell, Joseph & Klemperer, Paul, 2006. "Coordination and Lock-In: Competition with Switching Costs and Network Effects," Competition Policy Center, Working Paper Series qt9n26k7v1, Competition Policy Center, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
    3. Salant, Stephen W & Switzer, Sheldon & Reynolds, Robert J, 1983. "Losses from Horizontal Merger: The Effects of an Exogenous Change in Industry Structure on Cournot-Nash Equilibrium," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 98(2), pages 185-99, May.
    4. Xavier Gabaix & David Laibson, 2006. "Shrouded Attributes, Consumer Myopia, and Information Suppression in Competitive Markets," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 121(2), pages 505-540, May.
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    6. Farrell, Joseph & Shapiro, Carl, 1989. "Optimal Contracts with Lock-In," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(1), pages 51-68, March.
    7. Oliver Hart & Sanford Grossman, 1985. "The Costs and Benefits of Ownership: A Theory of Vertical and Lateral Integration," Working papers 372, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
    8. Salinger, Michael A, 1989. "The Meaning of "Upstream" and "Downstream" and the Implications for Modeling Vertical Mergers," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(4), pages 373-87, June.
    9. Stanley M. Besen & Joseph Farrell, 1994. "Choosing How to Compete: Strategies and Tactics in Standardization," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 8(2), pages 117-131, Spring.
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    12. Church, Jeffrey & Gandal, Neil, 1992. "Network Effects, Software Provision, and Standardization," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1), pages 85-103, March.
    13. Chen, Yongmin, 2001. "On Vertical Mergers and Their Competitive Effects," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 32(4), pages 667-85, Winter.
    14. D. Lee Heavner, 2004. "Vertical Enclosure: Vertical Integration and the Reluctance to Purchase from a Competitor," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(2), pages 179-199, 06.
    15. Economides, Nicholas & Salop, Steven C, 1992. "Competition and Integration among Complements, and Network Market Structure," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(1), pages 105-23, March.
    16. Bonanno, Giacomo & Vickers, John, 1988. "Vertical Separation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(3), pages 257-65, March.
    17. Beggs, Alan W, 1994. "Mergers and Malls," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 42(4), pages 419-28, December.
    18. R. Preston McAfee, 1999. "The effects of vertical integration on competing input suppliers," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Q I, pages 2-8.
    19. Ordover, Janusz A & Saloner, Garth & Salop, Steven C, 1990. "Equilibrium Vertical Foreclosure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(1), pages 127-42, March.
    20. Economides, Nicholas, 1989. "Desirability of Compatibility in the Absence of Network Externalities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(5), pages 1165-81, December.
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