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Product Differentiation and Upstream-Downstream Relations

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  • Lynne Pepall
  • George Norman

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between a differentiated downstream market and a specialized upstream market. We analyze three different types of vertical relation between the upstream and downstream sectors when the upstream market supplies specialized and complementary inputs to a downstream product-differentiated market. The first is the benchmark case of decentralized markets, the second is a network of alliances among upstream suppliers, and the third is partial vertical integration. We identify the perfect equilibrium for a symmetric model in each case and show that there is no simple relationship between the degree of connection between upstream and downstream firms and profitability. The key factor affecting prices and the relative profitability of the different market organizations is the degree of product differentiation among the downstream firms, because it affects the intensity of competition among upstream suppliers. We show that vertical foreclosure is not an equilibrium strategy. Copyright (c) 2001 Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Wiley Blackwell in its journal Journal of Economics & Management Strategy.

Volume (Year): 10 (2001)
Issue (Month): 2 (06)
Pages: 201-233

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Handle: RePEc:bla:jemstr:v:10:y:2001:i:2:p:201-233

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Web page: http://www.kellogg.northwestern.edu/research/journals/JEMS/

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References

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  1. Géarard Gaudet & Ngo Long, 1996. "Vertical Integration, Foreclosure, and profits in the Presence of Double Marginalization," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(3), pages 409-432, 09.
  2. Bolton, Patrick & Whinston, Michael D, 1993. "Incomplete Contracts, Vertical Integration, and Supply Assurance," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(1), pages 121-48, January.
  3. Hart, O. & Tirole, J., 1990. "Vertical Integration And Market Foreclosure," Working papers 548, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
  4. Nicholas Economides, 1997. "The Economics of Networks," Industrial Organization 9701002, EconWPA.
  5. Ordover, Janusz A & Saloner, Garth & Salop, Steven C, 1990. "Equilibrium Vertical Foreclosure," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(1), pages 127-42, March.
  6. Salinger, Michael A, 1988. "Vertical Mergers and Market Foreclosure," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 103(2), pages 345-56, May.
  7. Bonanno, Giacomo & Vickers, John, 1988. "Vertical Separation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 36(3), pages 257-65, March.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. G. Rossini, 2004. "Vertical integration in a stochastic framework and a nonsymmetric bargaining equilibrium," Working Papers 527, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  2. R. Antonietti & D. Antonioli, 2007. "Production offshoring and the skill composition of Italian manufacturing firms A quasi-experimental analysis," Working Papers 593, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  3. G. Rossini, 2005. "Pitfalls in private and social incentives of vertical crossborder outsourcing," Working Papers 536, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  4. Arghya Ghosh & Hodaka Morita, 2002. "Differentiated duopoly under vertical relationships with communication costs," Industrial Organization 0207008, EconWPA.
  5. E. Bacchiega & O. Bonroy, 2012. "Vertical relations and number of channels in quality-differentiated markets," Working Papers wp823, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  6. Gianpaolo Rossini, 2008. "Competition and bargaining in vertical relationships with market uncertainty," International Review of Economics, Springer, vol. 55(3), pages 229-242, September.
  7. Lemarie, Stephane & Ramani, Shyama, 2003. "Analysis Of The Vertical Relationships Between Seed And Biotech Companies," 2003 Annual meeting, July 27-30, Montreal, Canada 22041, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  8. Arijit Mukherjee & Piercarlo Zanchettin, 2012. "Vertical integration and product differentiation," Discussion Papers in Economics 12/17, Department of Economics, University of Leicester, revised Sep 2012.
  9. Rossini, Gianpaolo, 2005. "Outsourcing with labor management," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 455-466, December.
  10. Matsushima, Noriaki & Mizuno, Tomomichi, 2013. "Vertical separation as a defense against strong suppliers," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 228(1), pages 208-216.
  11. Feenstra, Robert C. & Huang, Deng-Shing & Hamilton, Gary G., 2003. "A market-power based model of business groups," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 51(4), pages 459-485, August.
  12. Matsushima, Noriaki, 2004. "Technology of upstream firms and equilibrium product differentiation," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 22(8-9), pages 1091-1114, November.
  13. L. Lambertini & G. Rossini, 2003. "Vertical Integration and Differentiation in an Oligopoly with Process Innovating R&D," Working Papers 468, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  14. Nisvan Erkal, 2003. "Buyer-Supplier Interaction, Asset Specificity, And Product Choice," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 885, The University of Melbourne.
  15. G. Rossini & L. Lambertini, 2003. "Endogeneous outsourcing and vertical integration with process R&D," Working Papers 487, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  16. Noriaki Matsushima & Tomomichi Mizuno, 2009. "Input specificity and product differentiation," ISER Discussion Paper 0745, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
  17. G. Rossini & L. Vici, 2007. "Vertical integration, disintegration and ability to export," Working Papers 592, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  18. Karen Eggleston & George Norman & Lynne Pepall, 2002. "Managed Health Care and Provider Integration: a Theory of Bilateral Market Power," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 0204, Department of Economics, Tufts University.

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