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El Sistema De Vouchers En La Educación: Una Revisión De La Teoría Y La Evidencia Empírica Para Chile

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En Chile el 90% de los niños cursa su educación básica y media en escuelas municipales o particulares financiadas parcial o totalmente con recursos públicos. Los recursos que reciben estas escuelas dependen del número de alumnos atendidos. Cada alumno es "dueño" de un voucher o cupón que implícitamente se transfiere a la escuela elegida. Si el alumno se cambia de escuela, el cupón se mueve con él. Esta modalidad de asignación de los recursos, explícita o implícitamente, ha sido evaluada negativamente por nuestras autoridades educacionales. Como en parte dicha evaluación se basa en alguna evidencia disponible, en este artículo junto con discutir las ventajas y desventajas teóricas del actual sistema de financiamiento público de la educación, revisan dicha evidencia. En este trabajo se sostiene que esa evaluación negativa no advierte que los resultados de un sistema de vouchers dependen crucialmente del diseño del sistema y de las regulaciones contempladas para su aplicación. Distintos sistemas de vouchers conducen a resultados diferentes. Por otro lado, los estudios empíricos en Chile presentan deficiencias metodológicas que hacen muy difícil extraer conclusiones robustas. Una lectura cuidadosa de la evidencia empírica habitualmente esgrimida para desacreditar el sistema de vouchers, hace pensar que, por el contrario, ésta bien podría utilizarse para apoyar el desarrollo y el mejoramiento del sistema de vouchers.

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Paper provided by Ilades-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Bussines in its series ILADES-Georgetown University Working Papers with number inv133.

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Handle: RePEc:ila:ilades:inv133

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  1. Carnoy, Martin, 1997. "Is Privatization through Education Vouchers Really the Answer? A Comment," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 12(1), pages 105-16, February.
  2. Alejandra Mizala & Pilar Romaguera, 1998. "Desempeño escolar y elección de colegios: La experiencia chilena," Documentos de Trabajo 36, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
  3. Alejandra Mizala & Pilar Romaguera & Darío Farren, 1998. "Eficiencia técnica de los establecimientos educacionales en Chile," Documentos de Trabajo 38, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
  4. James Heckman & Anne Layne-Farrar & Petra Todd, 1995. "Does Measured School Quality Really Matter? An Examination of the Earnings-Quality Relationship," NBER Working Papers 5274, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Kremer, Michael R, 1995. "Research on Schooling: What We Know and What We Don't: A Comment," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 10(2), pages 247-54, August.
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Cited by:
  1. Marcela Rom‡n & Marcela Perticar‡, 2012. "Student mobility in low quality schools: Segmentation among the most vulnerable students," Estudios de Economia, University of Chile, Department of Economics, vol. 39(2 Year 20), pages 159-177, December.
  2. Harald Beyer, 2003. "Education in Chile: Looking for Better Institutional Design," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 40(121), pages 539-546.
  3. Francisco Gallego, 2002. "Competencia y Resultados Educativos: Teoría y Evidencia para Chile," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 39(118), pages 309-352.
  4. Eduardo Lora, 2007. "The State of State Reform in Latin America," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6642, October.
  5. Marcela Perticara & Marcela Roman, 2012. "Student mobility in low quality schools. Segmentation among the most vulnerable students," ILADES-Georgetown University Working Papers inv286, Ilades-Georgetown University, Universidad Alberto Hurtado/School of Economics and Bussines.
  6. Gonzalo Duran, 2005. "Subsidios de Educación: Impacto en la Migración y Convergencia Regional," Public Economics 0512007, EconWPA.
  7. Claudio Sapelli, 2003. "The Chilean Voucher System: Some New Results and Research Challenges," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 40(121), pages 530-538.
  8. Claudio Sapelli & Arístides Torche, 2002. "Subsidios al Alumno o a la Escuela: Efectos sobre la Elección de Colegios," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 39(117), pages 175-202.
  9. Idrovo Aguirre, Byron, 2007. "¿Son las escuelas particulares subvencionadas mejores que las municipales? Estimación de la ecuación de logro escolar para Chile
    [Are the subsidized particular schools better than the public sch
    ," MPRA Paper 10665, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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