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Productivity in the Australian Dairy Industry

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  • Tom Kompas
  • Tuong Nhu Che

Abstract

Although the Australian dairy industry has performed well it has also faced considerable pressure over the past twenty years. A decline in the terms of trade and major structural change has provided added incentives for the industry to improve productivity. This paper constructs Tornqvist index values to measure and analyse movements in inputs, outputs, total factor productivity (TFP) and the terms of trade for the dairy industry as a whole and for each state over the years 1979 to 1999. Overall, there is clear evidence of a significant increase in the TFP index in the 1990s relative to the 1980s. However, in terms of fitted annual growth rates, there is also evidence of a productivity ‘slow down’ in the 1990s, with the principal exception of New South Wales. Average annual growth in dairy total factor productivity in Australia over the entire twenty-year period is 1.5 per cent, but decreases from 1.8 per cent in the first to 0.9 per cent in the second decade. In Victoria, the largest dairy producer, the growth in TFP in the second decade of the study is virtually zero, with poor weather conditions in the second half of the decade partly to blame. Much of the impressive growth in dairy output in the 1990s can thus be simply attributed to a growth in inputs. Index values for the terms of trade, the share of input costs in total costs and potential drives of productivity change are also examined.

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File URL: https://crawford.anu.edu.au/degrees/idec/working_papers/IDEC03-8.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by International and Development Economics in its series International and Development Economics Working Papers with number idec03-8.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: 2003
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:idc:wpaper:idec03-8

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  1. Knopke, Philip, 1988. "Measuring Productivity Change Under Different Levels Of Assistance: The Australian Dairy Industry," Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 32(02-03).
  2. Topp, Vernon & Williamson, G. & Lembit, Murray & Beare, Stephen, 1989. "The Resource Costs of Blended Milk Pricing in Victoria," 1989 Conference (33rd), February 7-9, 1989, Christchurch, New Zealand 144830, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
  3. Diewert, W. E., 1976. "Exact and superlative index numbers," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 4(2), pages 115-145, May.
  4. Lawrence, Denis & McKay, Lloyd, 1980. "Inputs, Outputs And Productivity Change In The Australian Sheep Industry," Australian Journal of Agricultural Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 24(01), April.
  5. Caves, Douglas W & Christensen, Laurits R & Diewert, W Erwin, 1982. "The Economic Theory of Index Numbers and the Measurement of Input, Output, and Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(6), pages 1393-1414, November.
  6. Christensen, Laurits R & Jorgenson, Dale W & Lau, Lawrence J, 1973. "Transcendental Logarithmic Production Frontiers," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 55(1), pages 28-45, February.
  7. Denis Lawrence & Lloyd McKay, 1980. "Inputs, Outputs And Productivity Change In The Australian Sheep Industry," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 24(1), pages 46-59, 04.
  8. Philip Knopke, 1988. "Measuring Productivity Change Under Different Levels Of Assistance: The Australian Dairy Industry," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 32(2-3), pages 113-128, 08-12.
  9. Caves, Douglas W & Christensen, Laurits R & Diewert, W Erwin, 1982. "Multilateral Comparisons of Output, Input, and Productivity Using Superlative Index Numbers," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(365), pages 73-86, March.
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Cited by:
  1. Mary Graham, 2008. "Developing a Social Perspective to Farm Performance Analysis," Economics Series 2008_17, Deakin University, Faculty of Business and Law, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance.
  2. Mary Graham, 2006. "Sustainability: Meaning and Measurement with Application to Agriculture," Economics Series 2006_31, Deakin University, Faculty of Business and Law, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance.
  3. Kevin Balcombe & Hristos Doucouliagos & Iain Fraseer, 2006. "Input Usage, Ouput Mix and Industry Deregulation: An Analysis of the Australian Dairy Manufacturing Industry," Economics Series 2006_27, Deakin University, Faculty of Business and Law, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance.
  4. Kompas, Tom & Che, Tuong Nhu, 2006. "Technology choice and efficiency on Australian dairy farms," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 50(1), March.
  5. Watson, Alistair S., 2005. "Productivity and the Dairy Industry," Australasian Agribusiness Review, University of Melbourne, Melbourne School of Land and Environment, vol. 13.

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