Swedish Business R&D and its Export Dependence
AbstractSweden has seen a rise in business R&D intensities and dependence on exports to make its economy grow since the early 1990s. This paper examines the role of foreign sales for stimulating R&D as compared to a domestic sales effect. In line with the literature, we find in cross-sections from 1991 to 2001 that R&D rises proportionally to sales. But among manufacturing firms foreign sales is distinctly more strongly associated with an increase in R&D than domestic sales. For service firms domestic sales are as important as foreign. The results are consistent with the hypotheses that manufacturing firms more easily separate production from R&D, that they economize on transport costs and are subject to learning-by-export effects. In general, the results highlight the dependence and the role of openness for stimulating R&D in a small economy, especially among manufacturing firms.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Lund University, CIRCLE - Center for Innovation, Research and Competences in the Learning Economy in its series CIRCLE Electronic Working Papers with number 2011/5.
Length: 33 pages
Date of creation: 23 Aug 2011
Date of revision:
R&D; size; exports; Sweden;
Other versions of this item:
- O32 - Economic Development, Technological Change, and Growth - - Technological Change; Research and Development; Intellectual Property Rights - - - Management of Technological Innovation and R&D
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2011-09-05 (All new papers)
- NEP-CSE-2011-09-05 (Economics of Strategic Management)
- NEP-INO-2011-09-05 (Innovation)
- NEP-INT-2011-09-05 (International Trade)
- NEP-SBM-2011-09-05 (Small Business Management)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Alla Lileeva & Daniel Trefler, 2010.
"Improved Access to Foreign Markets Raises Plant-Level Productivity... for Some Plants,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 125(3), pages 1051-1099, August.
- Alla Lileeva & Daniel Trefler, 2007. "Improved Access to Foreign Markets Raises Plant-Level Productivity ... for Some Plants," NBER Working Papers 13297, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Koenker,Roger, 2005.
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521608275.
- Henrekson, Magnus & Jakobsson, Ulf, 2000.
"Where Schumpeter was Nearly Right - The Swedish Model and Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy,"
Working Paper Series
533, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Ulf Jakobsson & Magnus Henrekson, 2001. "Where Schumpeter was nearly right - the Swedish model and Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 11(3), pages 331-358.
- Henrekson, Magnus & Jakobsson, Ulf, 2000. "Where Schumpeter was nearly Right - the Swedish Model and Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy," Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 370, Stockholm School of Economics.
- Olof Ejermo & Astrid Kander, 2011. "Swedish business research productivity," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(4), pages 1081-1118, August.
- Sofronis Clerides & Saul Lach & James Tybout, 1996.
"Is "Learning-by-Exporting" Important? Micro-Dynamic Evidence from Colombia, Mexico and Morocco,"
NBER Working Papers
5715, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Sofronis K. Clerides & Saul Lach & James R. Tybout, 1998. "Is Learning By Exporting Important? Micro-Dynamic Evidence From Colombia, Mexico, And Morocco," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 113(3), pages 903-947, August.
- Sofronis Clerides & Saul Lach & James Tybout, 1996. "Is "learning-by-exporting" important? Micro-dynamic evidence from Colombia, Mexico and Morocco," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 96-30, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- De Loecker, Jan, 2007.
"Do exports generate higher productivity? Evidence from Slovenia,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 69-98, September.
- Jan De Loecker, 2004. "Do Exports Generate Higher Productivity? Evidence from Slovenia," LICOS Discussion Papers 15104, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
- Andersson, Martin & Lööf, Hans, 2008.
"Learning-by-Exporting Revisited - the role of intensity and persistence,"
Working Paper Series in Economics and Institutions of Innovation
149, Royal Institute of Technology, CESIS - Centre of Excellence for Science and Innovation Studies.
- Martin Andersson & Hans Lˆˆf, 2009. "Learning-by-Exporting Revisited: The Role of Intensity and Persistence," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 111(4), pages 893-916, December.
- Philippe Aghion & Nick Bloom & Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Peter Howitt, 2005.
"Competition and Innovation: An Inverted-U Relationship,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 120(2), pages 701-728, May.
- Philippe Aghion & Nicholas Bloom & Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Peter Howitt, 2002. "Competition and innovation: an inverted U relationship," IFS Working Papers W02/04, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Philippe Aghion & Nicholas Bloom & Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Peter Howitt, 2002. "Competition and Innovation: An Inverted U Relationship," NBER Working Papers 9269, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Howitt, Peter & Griffith, Rachel & Aghion, Philippe & Blundell, Richard & Bloom, Nick, 2005. "Competition and Innovation: An Inverted-U Relationship," Scholarly Articles 4481507, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Breschi, Stefano & Malerba, Franco & Orsenigo, Luigi, 2000. "Technological Regimes and Schumpeterian Patterns of Innovation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(463), pages 388-410, April.
- Van Biesebroeck, Johannes, 2005.
"Exporting raises productivity in sub-Saharan African manufacturing firms,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 373-391, December.
- Johannes Van Biesebroeck, 2003. "Exporting Raises Productivity in Sub-Saharan African Manufacturing Plants," NBER Working Papers 10020, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Wallmark, J. Torkel & McQueen, Douglas H., 1991. "One hundred major Swedish technical innovations, from 1945 to 1980," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(4), pages 325-344, August.
- Patrik Gustavsson Tingvall & Patrik Karpaty, 2011.
"Service-sector competition, innovation and R&D,"
Economics of Innovation and New Technology,
Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(1), pages 63-88.
- Santarelli, Enrico & Piergiovanni, Roberta, 1996.
"Analyzing literature-based innovation output indicators: the Italian experience,"
Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 689-711, August.
- Enrico Santarelli, 1994. "Analysing Literature-Based Innovation Output Indicators: The Italian Experience," Working Papers 197, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
- Henrekson, Magnus & Johansson, Dan, 1999.
" Institutional Effects on the Evolution of the Size Distribution of Firms,"
Small Business Economics,
Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 11-23, February.
- Henrekson, Magnus & Johansson, Dan, 1998. "Institutional Effects on the Evolution of the Size Distribution of Firms," Working Paper Series 497, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Krugman, Paul, 1980. "Scale Economies, Product Differentiation, and the Pattern of Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(5), pages 950-59, December.
- Martin Andersson & Olof Ejermo, 2008. "Technology Specialization And The Magnitude And Quality Of Exports," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(4), pages 355-375.
- Mary Hallward-Driemeier & Giuseppe Iarossi & Kenneth L. Sokoloff, 2002. "Exports and Manufacturing Productivity in East Asia: A Comparative Analysis with Firm-Level Data," NBER Working Papers 8894, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ejermo, Olof & Kander, Astrid & Svensson Henning, Martin, 2011. "The R&D-growth paradox arises in fast-growing sectors," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(5), pages 664-672, June.
- Alfred Kleinknecht & Kees Van Montfort & Erik Brouwer, 2002. "The Non-Trivial Choice between Innovation Indicators," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 109-121.
- William Gould, 1993. "Quantile regression with bootstrapped standard errors," Stata Technical Bulletin, StataCorp LP, vol. 2(9).
- Fors, Gunnar & Svensson, Roger, 2002. "R&D and foreign sales in Swedish multinationals: a simultaneous relationship?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 95-107, January.
- repec:ner:leuven:urn:hdl:123456789/402577 is not listed on IDEAS
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Cristina Chaminade).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.