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The Non-Trivial Choice between Innovation Indicators

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Author Info

  • Alfred Kleinknecht
  • Kees Van Montfort
  • Erik Brouwer

Abstract

We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of five alternative innovation indicators: R&D, patent applications, total innovation expenditure and shares in sales taken by imitative and by innovative products as they were measured in the 1992 Community Innovation Survey (CIS) in the Netherlands. We conclude that the two most commonly used indicators (R&D and patent applications) have more (and more severe) weaknesses than is often assumed. Moreover, our factor analysis suggests that there is little correlation between the various indicators. This underlines the empirical relevance of various sources of bias of innovation indicators as discussed in this paper.

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File URL: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10438590210899
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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Taylor & Francis Journals in its journal Economics of Innovation and New Technology.

Volume (Year): 11 (2002)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 109-121

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Handle: RePEc:taf:ecinnt:v:11:y:2002:i:2:p:109-121

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Related research

Keywords: R&D; Innovative Output; Total Innovation Expenditure; Patents; Factor Analysis;

References

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  1. Brouwer, E. & Kleinknecht, Alfred & Reijnen, J.O.N., 1993. "Employment growth and innovation at the firm level," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-5662246, Tilburg University.
  2. Zvi Griliches, 1984. "R & D, Patents, and Productivity," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number gril84-1.
  3. Brouwer, E. & Kleinknecht, Alfred, 1993. "Technology and a firm's export intensity: The need for adequate innovation measurement," Open Access publications from Tilburg University urn:nbn:nl:ui:12-5662243, Tilburg University.
  4. Brouwer, E. & Kleinknecht, A., 1995. "Measuring the unmeasurable: a country's non-R&D expenditure on product and service innovation," Serie Research Memoranda 0009, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
  5. Solomou, Solomos, 1986. "Innovation Clusters and Kondratieff Long Waves in Economic Growth," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 10(2), pages 101-12, June.
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