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La place de la notion de chômage involontaire dans la théorie keynésienne de l'emploi

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  • Alain Béraud

    ()
    (THEMA - Théorie économique, modélisation et applications - CNRS : UMR8184 - Université de Cergy Pontoise)

Abstract

La notion de chômage involontaire a longtemps occupé dans la théorie économique un rôle central. L'expression apparaît très tôt, dès le début du 20ème siècle, quand les économistes commencèrent à s'intéresser au chômage. Elle désigne simplement les chômeurs qui accepteraient de travailler au taux de salaire courant. Keynes donna de cette expression un définition différente, beaucoup plus étroite. Le chômage involontaire est, selon lui, le chômage qui trouve son origine dans l'insuffisance de la demande de biens. Au début des années 1970, Phelps, Alchian et Holt lui opposèrent une analyse où les agents ne disposent que d'une information imparfaite sur les salaires et les emplois. Leur idées furent reprises et développées notamment par Diamond, Mortensen et Pissarides. Dans la théorie du chômage d'équilibre, l'opposition entre chômage volontaire et chômage involontaire n'a pas de sens, que l'on définisse le chômage involontaire comme le faisait Keynes ou, plus simplement, comme l'offre de travail excédentaire. Mais, plus fondamentalement, ce que cette approche rejette c'est l'idée que l'on peut faire abstraction du " chômage frictionnel " dans l'analyse de la détermination du niveau de l'emploi. La décomposition du chômage en une série de catégories -- frictionnel, cyclique, volontaire, involontaire... -- n'est pas susceptible de nous aider dans une analyse théorique ou empirique du chômage.

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Paper provided by HAL in its series Post-Print with number halshs-00269396.

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Date of creation: 2011
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Publication status: Published - Presented, 12ème Colloque international de l'association Charles Gide pour l'étude de la pensée économique, 2008, Orléans, France
Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00269396

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Keywords: Chômage volontaire; chômage d'équilibre; solution de marchandage de Nash; rigidité des salaires; fonction d'appariement; Keynes; Beveridge; Phelps; Diamond; Mortensen; Pissarides.;

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