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Are bank shareholders enemies of regulators or a potential source of market discipline?

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  • Sangkyun Park
  • Stavros Peristiani

Abstract

In moral hazard models, bank shareholders have incentives to transfer wealth from the deposit insurer--that is, maximize put option value--by pursuing riskier strategies. For safe banks with large charter value, however, the risk-taking incentive is outweighed by the possibility of losing charter value. Focusing on the relationship between book value, market value, and a risk measure, this paper develops a semi-parametric model for estimating the critical level of bank risk at which put option value starts to dominate charter value. From these estimates, we infer the extent to which the risk-taking incentive prevailed during 1986-92, a period characterized by serious banking problems and financial turmoil. We find that despite the difficult financial environment, shareholders' risk-taking incentive was confined primarily to a small fraction of highly risky banks.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of New York in its series Staff Reports with number 138.

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Date of creation: 2001
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fednsr:138

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Keywords: Stockholders ; Bank supervision ; Bank management;

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References

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  1. Park, Sangkyun, 1997. "Risk-taking behavior of banks under regulation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 491-507, April.
  2. Jayaratne, Jith & Strahan, Philip E, 1996. "The Finance-Growth Nexus: Evidence from Bank Branch Deregulation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 111(3), pages 639-70, August.
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  6. Sangkyun Park & Stavros Peristiani, 2001. "Are bank shareholders enemies of regulators or a potential source of market discipline?," Staff Reports 138, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  7. Keeley, Michael C, 1990. "Deposit Insurance, Risk, and Market Power in Banking," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1183-1200, December.
  8. Rebecca S. Demsetz & Marc R. Saidenberg & Philip E. Strahan, 1996. "Banks with something to lose: the disciplinary role of franchise value," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Oct, pages 1-14.
  9. Brewer, Elijah, III & Mondschean, Thomas H, 1994. "An Empirical Test of the Incentive Effects of Deposit Insurance: The Case of Junk Bonds at Savings and Loan Associations," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 26(1), pages 146-64, February.
  10. R. Alton Gilbert, 1990. "Market discipline of bank risk: theory and evidence," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jan, pages 3-18.
  11. Merton, Robert C, 1974. "On the Pricing of Corporate Debt: The Risk Structure of Interest Rates," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(2), pages 449-70, May.
  12. Peter Ritchken & James Thomson & Ray DeGennaro & Anlong Li, 1991. "On flexibility, capital structure, and investment decisions for the insured bank," Working Paper 9110, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  13. Elyasiani, Elyas & Goldberg, Lawrence G., 2004. "Relationship lending: a survey of the literature," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 56(4), pages 315-330.
  14. Allen, Linda & Rai, Anoop, 1996. "Bank charter values and capital levels: An international comparison," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(3), pages 269-284, August.
  15. Yuk-Shee Chan & Stuart I. Greenbaum & Anjan V. Thakor, 2004. "Is Fairly Priced Deposit Insurance Possible?," Finance 0411018, EconWPA.
  16. Astrid A. Dick, 2006. "Nationwide Branching and Its Impact on Market Structure, Quality, and Bank Performance," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 79(2), pages 567-592, March.
  17. Flannery, Mark J, 1998. "Using Market Information in Prudential Bank Supervision: A Review of the U.S. Empirical Evidence," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 30(3), pages 273-305, August.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Akhigbe, Aigbe & Madura, Jeff & Marciniak, Marek, 2012. "Bank capital and exposure to the financial crisis," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 64(5), pages 377-392.
  2. Sangkyun Park & Stavros Peristiani, 2001. "Are bank shareholders enemies of regulators or a potential source of market discipline?," Staff Reports 138, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  3. Hasan, Iftekhar & Jackowicz, Krzysztof & Kowalewski, Oskar & Kozłowski, Łukasz, 2012. "Market Discipline during Crisis: Evidence from Bank Depositors in Transition Countries," MPRA Paper 43693, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  4. Günther, Susanne, 2014. "Die Vermeidung von Bank Runs und der Erhalt von Marktdisziplin: Das Dilemma der Bankenregulierung?," Arbeitspapiere 142, Westfälsche Wilhelms-Universität Münster (WWU), Institut für Genossenschaftswesen.
  5. Tristan Auvray & Olivier Brossard, 2010. "Too dispersed to monitor? Ownership dispersion, monitoring and the prediction of bank distress," Working Papers hal-00638913, HAL.
  6. Hervé Alexandre & Julien Clavier, 2012. "Passage Obligatoire Aux Normes Comptables Ias/Ifrs, Contraintes En Liquidite Et Rationnement Du Credit : Une Etude Empirique Dans L'Industrie Bancaire Europenne," Post-Print hal-00936624, HAL.
  7. Helder Mendonça & Renato Villela Loures, 2009. "Market discipline in the Brazilian banking industry: an analysis for the subordinated debt holders," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 286-307, December.
  8. Stavros Peristiani & Vanessa Savino, 2011. "Are credit default swaps associated with higher corporate defaults?," Staff Reports 494, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  9. Shehzad, Choudhry Tanveer & de Haan, Jakob & Scholtens, Bert, 2010. "The impact of bank ownership concentration on impaired loans and capital adequacy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 399-408, February.
  10. Julien Clavier, 2011. "Transition aux normes comptables IAS/IFRS, discipline de marché et adéquation des fonds propres aux risques dans l'industrie bancaire européenne," Post-Print hal-00646838, HAL.
  11. Michalak, Tobias C. & Uhde, André, 2012. "Credit risk securitization and bank soundness in Europe," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 272-285.
  12. Adam Ashcraft & Hoyt Bleakley, 2006. "On the market discipline of informationally opaque firms: evidence from bank borrowers in the federal funds market," Staff Reports 257, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  13. Jackowicz, Krzysztof & Kowalewski, Oskar & Kozłowski, Łukasz, 2013. "The influence of political factors on commercial banks in Central European countries," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 759-777.
  14. David VanHoose, 2007. "Market Discipline and Supervisory Discretion in Banking: Reinforcing or Conflicting Pillars of Basel II?," NFI Working Papers 2007-WP-06, Indiana State University, Scott College of Business, Networks Financial Institute.
  15. Uhde, André & Heimeshoff, Ulrich, 2009. "Consolidation in banking and financial stability in Europe: Empirical evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1299-1311, July.
  16. Uchida, Hirofumi & Satake, Mitsuhiko, 2009. "Market discipline and bank efficiency," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 792-802, December.
  17. De Giuli, Maria Elena & Maggi, Mario Alessandro & Paris, Francesco Maria, 2009. "Deposit guarantee evaluation and incentives analysis in a mutual guarantee system," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 1058-1068, June.

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