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The effect of changes in ownership structure on performance: evidence from the thrift industry

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  • Rebel A. Cole
  • Hamid Mehran

Abstract

Restrictions on the ownership structure of a public company may harm the company's performance by preventing owners from choosing the best structure. We examine the stock-price performance and ownership structure, before and after the expiration of anti-takeover regulations, of a sample of thrift institutions that converted from mutual to stock ownership. We find that after the anti-takeover provisions expire, firm performance improves significantly, and the portions of the firm owned by managers, noninstitutional outside blockholders, and the firm's employee stock ownership plan increase. Changes in performance are positively associated with changes in ownership by managers and by noninstitutional outside blockholders but negatively associated with changes in ownership by employee stock ownership plans.

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File URL: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/1996/199606/199606abs.html
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.) in its series Finance and Economics Discussion Series with number 96-6.

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Date of creation: 1996
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Handle: RePEc:fip:fedgfe:96-6

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Keywords: Stocks ; Savings and loan associations;

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References

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  1. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
  2. R. Glenn Hubbard & Darius Palia, 1994. "Executive Pay and Performance: Evidence from the U.S. Banking Industry," NBER Working Papers 4704, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Kane, Edward J., 1995. "Three paradigms for the role of capitalization requirements in insured financial institutions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(3-4), pages 431-459, June.
  4. Mester, Loretta J., 1991. "Agency costs among savings and loans," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 257-278, June.
  5. Demsetz, Harold, 1983. "The Structure of Ownership and the Theory of the Firm," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(2), pages 375-90, June.
  6. Roe, Mark J., 1990. "Political and legal restraints on ownership and control of public companies," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 7-41, September.
  7. Michael C. Jensen & Kevin J. Murphy, 1990. "Ceo Incentives - It'S Not How Much You Pay, But How," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 3(3), pages 36-49.
  8. Jensen, Michael C. & Warner, Jerold B., 1988. "The distribution of power among corporate managers, shareholders, and directors," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 3-24, January.
  9. Mehran, Hamid, 1992. "Executive Incentive Plans, Corporate Control, and Capital Structure," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 27(04), pages 539-560, December.
  10. Hermalin, Benjamin E. & Wallace, Nancy E., 1992. "The Determinants of Efficiency and Solvency in Savings and Loans," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt1nj556zf, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
  11. McConnell, John J. & Servaes, Henri, 1990. "Additional evidence on equity ownership and corporate value," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 595-612, October.
  12. De Bondt, Werner F M & Thaler, Richard, 1985. " Does the Stock Market Overreact?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(3), pages 793-805, July.
  13. Harold Demsetz, 1993. "Financial regulation and the competitiveness of the large U.S. corporation," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 61-67.
  14. Fama, Eugene F & Jensen, Michael C, 1983. "Separation of Ownership and Control," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(2), pages 301-25, June.
  15. Crawford, Anthony J & Ezzell, John R & Miles, James A, 1995. "Bank CEO Pay-Performance Relations and the Effects of Deregulation," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 68(2), pages 231-56, April.
  16. Rebel A. Cole & Hamid Mehran, 1991. "Executive compensation and corporate performance: evidence from thrift institutions," Proceedings 319, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  17. Healy, Paul M. & Palepu, Krishna G. & Ruback, Richard S., 1992. "Does corporate performance improve after mergers?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 135-175, April.
  18. Mehran, Hamid, 1995. "Executive compensation structure, ownership, and firm performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 163-184, June.
  19. Cornett, Marcia Millon & Tehranian, Hassan, 1992. "Changes in corporate performance associated with bank acquisitions," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 211-234, April.
  20. Masulis, Ronald W., 1987. "Changes in ownership structure : Conversions of mutual savings and loans to stock charter," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 29-59, March.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Börsch-Supan, Axel & Köke, Jens, 2000. "An applied econometricians' view of empirical corporate governance studies," ZEW Discussion Papers 00-17, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  2. Himmelberg, Charles P. & Hubbard, R. Glenn & Palia, Darius, 1999. "Understanding the determinants of managerial ownership and the link between ownership and performance," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 353-384, September.
  3. Simon H. Kwan, 2004. "Risk and return of publicly held versus privately owned banks," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Sep, pages 97-107.
  4. K. Chen, Shaw & Chen, Xuanjuan & Lin, Bing-Xuan & Zhong, Rongsa, 2005. "The impact of government regulation and ownership on the performance of securities companies: Evidences from China," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 113-124, December.
  5. Cook, Douglas O. & Hogan, Arthur & Kieschnick, Robert, 2004. "A study of the corporate governance of thrifts," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 1247-1271, June.
  6. Patricia C. Mosser & Joseph Tracy & Joshua Wright, 2013. "The capital structure and governance of a mortgage securitization utility," Staff Reports 644, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  7. Otchere, Isaac, 2006. "Stock exchange self-listing and value effects," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(5), pages 926-953, December.
  8. Allen N. Berger & Emilia Bonaccorsi di Patti, 2002. "Capital structure and firm performance: a new approach to testing agency theory and an application to the banking industry," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2002-54, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  9. Yamin Ahmad & Russell Kashian, 2008. "Modeling the Time to an Initial Public Offering: When does the Fruit Ripen?," Working Papers 08-01, UW-Whitewater, Department of Economics.
  10. Berkowitz, Michael K. & Qiu, Jiaping, 2003. "Ownership, risk and performance of mutual fund management companies," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 109-134.
  11. Friesen, Geoffrey C. & Swift, Christopher, 2009. "Overreaction in the thrift IPO aftermarket," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1285-1298, July.
  12. Neumann, Robert & Voetmann, Torben, 2003. "Does ownership matter in the presence of strict antiactivism legislation? Evidence from equity transactions in Denmark," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 157-171.
  13. Rajaa Mtanios & Mathieu Paquerot, 1999. "Structure de propriété et sous-performance des firmes:une étude empirique sur le marché au comptant, le règlement mensuel et le second marché," Working Papers CREGO 0991202, Université de Bourgogne - CREGO EA7317 Centre de recherches en gestion des organisations.
  14. Toni Dechario & Patricia Mosser & Joseph Tracy & James Vickery & Joshua Wright, 2010. "A private lender cooperative model for residential mortgage finance," Staff Reports 466, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  15. Gropp, Reint & Köhler, Matthias, 2010. "Bank owners or bank managers: who is keen on risk? Evidence from the financial crisis," ZEW Discussion Papers 10-013, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  16. Robert DeYoung & Kenneth Spong & Richard J. Sullivan, 1999. "Who's minding the store? motivating and monitoring hired managers at small, closely held firms: the case of commercial banks," Working Paper Series WP-99-17, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.

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