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A bargaining theory of trade invoicing and pricing

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  • Linda Goldberg
  • Cedric Tille

Abstract

We develop a theoretical model of international trade pricing in which individual exporters and importers bargain over the transaction price and exposure to exchange rate fluctuations. We find that the choice of price and invoicing currency reflects the full market structure, including the extent of fragmentation and the degree of heterogeneity across importers and across exporters. Our study shows that a party has a higher effective bargaining weight when it is large or more risk tolerant. A higher effective bargaining weight of importers relative to exporters in turn translates into lower import prices and greater exchange rate pass-through into import prices. We show the range of price and invoicing outcomes that arise under alternative market structures. Such structures matter not only for the outcome of specific exporter-importer transactions, but also for aggregate variables such as the average price, the average choice of invoicing currency, and the correlation between invoicing currency and the size of trade transactions.

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Paper provided by Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas in its series Globalization and Monetary Policy Institute Working Paper with number 144.

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Date of creation: 2013
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Handle: RePEc:fip:feddgw:144

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Keywords: International trade;

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  1. Philippe Bacchetta & Eric van Wincoop, 2002. "A Theory of the Currency Denomination of International Trade," NBER Working Papers 9039, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  2. Selcuk, Cemil, 2011. "Trading Mechanism Selection with Directed Search when Buyers are Risk Averse," MPRA Paper 36224, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Tille, Cédric & van Wincoop, Eric, 2008. "International Capital Flows," CEPR Discussion Papers 6705, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Beatriz de Blas & Katheryn Russ, 2010. "Understanding Markups in the Open Economy under Bertrand Competition," NBER Working Papers 16587, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Raphael Anton Auer & Raphael S. Schoenle, 2012. "Market Structure and Exchange Rate Pass-Through," Working Papers 2012-14, Swiss National Bank.
  6. Charles Engel, 2005. "Equivalence Results for Optimal Pass-Through, Optimal Indexing to Exchange Rates, and Optimal Choice of Currency for Export Pricing," NBER Working Papers 11209, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  7. Inderst, Roman & Wey, Christian, 2003. " Bargaining, Mergers, and Technology Choice in Bilaterally Oligopolistic Industries," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 34(1), pages 1-19, Spring.
  8. Camera, Gabriele & Selcuk, Cemil, 2004. "Price Dispersion with Directed Search," Purdue University Economics Working Papers 1173, Purdue University, Department of Economics.
  9. Dobson, Paul W & Waterson, Michael, 1997. "Countervailing Power and Consumer Prices," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 107(441), pages 418-30, March.
  10. Hellerstein, Rebecca, 2008. "Who bears the cost of a change in the exchange rate? Pass-through accounting for the case of beer," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 14-32, September.
  11. Michael B. Devereux & Charles Engel & Peter E. Storgaard, 2003. "Endogenous Exchange Rate Pass-through when Nominal Prices are Set in Advance," IEHAS Discussion Papers 0304, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
  12. Hans-Theo Normann & Bradley J. Ruffle & Christopher M. Snyder, 2007. "Do buyer-size discounts depend on the curvature of the surplus function? Experimental tests of bargaining models," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 38(3), pages 747-767, 09.
  13. Linda S. Goldberg & Cedric Tille, 2005. "Vehicle Currency Use in International Trade," NBER Working Papers 11127, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Michael B. Devereux & Shouyong Shi, 2013. "Vehicle Currency," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 54(1), pages 97-133, 02.
  15. Horn, H. & Wolinsky, A., 1988. "Bilateral Monopolies And Incentives For Merger," Papers 410, Stockholm - International Economic Studies.
  16. Friberg, Richard & Wilander, Fredrik, 2008. "The currency denomination of exports -- A questionnaire study," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 54-69, May.
  17. Nicolas Berman & Philippe Martin & Thierry Mayer, 2012. "How do Different Exporters React to Exchange Rate Changes?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 127(1), pages 437-492.
  18. Novy, Dennis, 2006. "Hedge Your Costs: Exchange Rate Risk and Endogenous Currency Invoicing," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 765, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  19. Friberg, Richard, 1998. "In which currency should exporters set their prices?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 59-76, June.
  20. Tasneem Chipty & Christopher M. Snyder, 1999. "The Role Of Firm Size In Bilateral Bargaining: A Study Of The Cable Television Industry," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(2), pages 326-340, May.
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As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. Bargaining power and international pricing
    by Economic Logician in Economic Logic on 2013-06-06 14:27:00
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Cited by:
  1. Eichengreen, Barry & Chiţu, Livia & Mehl, Arnaud, 2014. "Network effects, homogeneous goods and international currency choice: new evidence on oil markets from an older era," Working Paper Series 1651, European Central Bank.

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