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Globalization and Workers in Developing Countries

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  • Martin Rama

    (Research Department, World Bank)

Abstract

Stories on the positive and negative effects of globalization on workers in developing countries abound. But a comprehensive picture is missing and many of the stories are ideologically charged. This paper reviews the academic literature on the subject, including several studies currently under way, and derives the complications for public policy. First, it deals with the effects of openness to trade, foreign direct investment and financial crisis on averages wages. Second, it discusses the impact of exposure to world markets on the dispersion of wages by occupation, skill and gender. Third, it describes the pattern of job destruction and job creation associated with globalization. Because these two processes are not synchronized, the fourth issue addressed is the impact an unemployment rates. Fifth, the paper reviews the labor market policies that can be used to offset the adverse impacts of globalization on employment and labor earnings. Finally, it discusses how the international community could encourage developing countries to adopt sound labor market policies in the context of globalization.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by East-West Center, Economics Study Area in its series Economics Study Area Working Papers with number 41.

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Length: 46 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2002
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ewc:wpaper:wp41

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References

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  1. Alvaro Forteza & Martín Rama, 2000. "Labor Market "Rigidity" and the Success of Economic Reforms Across more than One Hundred Countries," Documentos de Trabajo (working papers) 0600, Department of Economics - dECON.
  2. Assaad, Ragui, 1997. "The Effects of Public Sector Hiring and Compensation Policies on the Egyptian Labor Market," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 11(1), pages 85-118, January.
  3. Drusilla K. Brown & Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M. Stern, 1999. "U.S. Trade and Other Policy Options and Programs to Deter Foreign Exploitation of Child Labor," Discussion Papers Series, Department of Economics, Tufts University 9904, Department of Economics, Tufts University.
  4. Basu, Kaushik & Van, Pham Hoang, 1998. "The Economics of Child Labor," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(3), pages 412-27, June.
  5. Fallon, Peter R & Lucas, Robert E B, 1991. "The Impact of Changes in Job Security Regulations in India and Zimbabwe," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 5(3), pages 395-413, September.
  6. Datt, Gaurav & Ravallion, Martin, 1994. "Transfer Benefits from Public-Works Employment: Evidence for Rural India," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 104(427), pages 1346-69, November.
  7. Butcher, Kristin F. & Rouse, Cecilia Elena, 2001. "Wage effects of unions and industrial councils in South Africa," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2520, The World Bank.
  8. Richard B. Freeman & Remco Oostendorp, 2000. "Wages Around the World: Pay Across Occupations and Countries," NBER Working Papers 8058, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Alvaro Forteza & Martin Rama, 2006. "Labor Market 'Rigidity' and the Success of Economic Reforms Across More Than 100 Countries," Journal of Economic Policy Reform, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(1), pages 75-105.
  10. Basu, Kaushik, 1998. "Child labor : cause, consequence, and cure, with remarks on International Labor Standards," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2027, The World Bank.
  11. David Dollar & Aart Kraay, 2004. "Trade, Growth, and Poverty," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 114(493), pages F22-F49, 02.
  12. Krishna, Pravin & Mitra, Devashish & Chinoy, Sajjid, 2001. "Trade liberalization and labor demand elasticities: evidence from Turkey," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 391-409, December.
  13. Jean-Marie Baland & James A. Robinson, 2000. "Is Child Labor Inefficient?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(4), pages 663-679, August.
  14. Brown, D.K. & Dearorff, A.V. & Stern, R.M., 1993. "International Labor Standards and Trade: A Theoretical Analysis," Working Papers 333, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
  15. Kyle Bagwell & Robert W. Staiger, 1998. "The Simple Economics of Labor Standards and the GATT," NBER Working Papers 6604, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Takatoshi Ito & Anne O. Krueger, 1997. "Regionalism versus Multilateral Trade Arrangements, NBER-EASE Volume 6," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number ito_97-1.
  17. Cameron, L. & Worswick, C., 1998. "Education Expenditure Responses to Crop Loss in Indonesia: A Gender Bias," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 636, The University of Melbourne.
  18. Robert C. Feenstra & Gordon H. Hanson, 1995. "Foreign Direct Investment and Relative Wages: Evidence from Mexico's Maquiladoras," NBER Working Papers 5122, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Assaad, Ragui, 1999. "Matching Severance Payments with Worker Losses in the Egyptian Public Sector," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 13(1), pages 117-53, January.
  20. Bell, Linda A, 1997. "The Impact of Minimum Wages in Mexico and Colombia," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(3), pages S102-35, July.
  21. William T. Dickens & Kevin Lang, 1991. "An Analysis of the Nature of Unemployment in Sri Lanka," NBER Working Papers 3777, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  22. Aitken, B. & Harrison, A. & Lipsey, R.E., 1995. "Wages and Foreign Ownership: A Comparative Study of Mexico, Venezuela, and the United States," Papers 95-21, Columbia - Graduate School of Business.
  23. Belser, Patrick & Rama, Martin, 2001. "State ownership and labor redundancy - estimates based on enterprise-level data from Vietnam," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2599, The World Bank.
  24. Kym Anderson, 1996. "Social Policy Dimensions of Economic Integration: Environmental and Labour Standards," NBER Working Papers 5702, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  25. Fretwell, David H. & Benus, Jacob & O'Leary, Christopher J., 1999. "Evaluating the impact of active labor programs : results of cross country studies in Europe and Central Asia," Social Protection Discussion Papers 20131, The World Bank.
  26. Beyer, Harald & Rojas, Patricio & Vergara, Rodrigo, 1999. "Trade liberalization and wage inequality," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 103-123, June.
  27. Malathy Duraisamy, 2000. "Child Schooling and Child Work in India," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0837, Econometric Society.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Bhanumurthy, N.R. & Mitra, Arup, 2006. "Globalization, Growth and Poverty in India," Working Paper Series RP2006/41, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  2. Gourdon, Julien, 2007. "Trade and Wage Inequality in Developing Countries: South-South Trade Matters," MPRA Paper 4177, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Spinesi, Luca, 2009. "Rent-seeking bureaucracies, inequality, and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 244-257, November.
  4. Kaltani, Linda & Loayza, Norman V., 2008. "Initial conditions and the outcome of economic reform," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 101(3), pages 230-233, December.
  5. Peter Nunnenkamp & Rainer Schweickert & Manfred Wiebelt, 2007. "Distributional Effects of FDI: How the Interaction of FDI and Economic Policy Affects Poor Households in Bolivia," Development Policy Review, Overseas Development Institute, vol. 25(4), pages 429-450, 07.
  6. Rémi Bazillier & Nicolas Sirven, 2006. "Les normes fondamentales du travail contribuent-elles à réduire les inégalités ?," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) halshs-00112316, HAL.
  7. Gindling, T. H. & Terrell, Katherine, 2007. "Minimum Wages and the Welfare of Workers in Honduras," IZA Discussion Papers 2892, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. Epo, Boniface Ngah & Abiala, Mireille Ambiana & Maimo, Clovis Wendji & Choub, Péguy Christophe Faha, 2010. "Globalization, Institutions, Asset Endowments and Poverty Reduction Outcomes in Africa within the Context of the Financial Crisis: Establishing a Transmission Mechanisms," MPRA Paper 20655, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  9. Guerriero, Marta & Sen, Kunal, 2012. "What Determines the Share of Labour in National Income? A Cross-Country Analysis," IZA Discussion Papers 6643, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Irfan ul Haque, 2004. "Globalization, Neoloberalism And Labour," UNCTAD Discussion Papers 173, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
  11. repec:idb:brikps:72378 is not listed on IDEAS
  12. Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Nadia Bashir, 2011. "Trade Liberalization, Poverty and Inequality Nexus: A Case Study of India," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 1(3), pages 114-119, September.
  13. Sen, Kunal, 2008. "International Trade and Manufacturing Employment Outcomes in India: A Comparative Study," Working Paper Series RP2008/87, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  14. Thierry Verdier, 2005. "Intégration commerciale « socialement responsable » : une approche en termes d'économie politique," Revue d’économie du développement, De Boeck Université, vol. 19(4), pages 55-121.
  15. Jalil, Abdul, 2012. "Modeling income inequality and openness in the framework of Kuznets curve: New evidence from China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 309-315.
  16. Anderson, Edward, 2005. "Openness and inequality in developing countries: A review of theory and recent evidence," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 33(7), pages 1045-1063, July.

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