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The Happiness of Giving: The Time-Ask Effect

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  • Liu, Wendy

    (U of California, Los Angeles)

  • Aaker, Jennifer L.

    (U of California, Berkeley)

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    Abstract

    This research examines how a focus on time versus money can lead to two distinct mindsets that impact consumers' willingness to donate to charitable causes. The results of three experiments, conducted both in the lab and in the field, reveal that asking individuals to think about "how much time they would like to donate" (versus "how much money they would like to donate") to a charity increases the amount that they ultimately donate to the charity. Fueling this effect are differential mindsets activated by time versus money. Implications for the research on time, money and emotional well-being are discussed.

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    File URL: http://gsbapps.stanford.edu/researchpapers/library/RP1998.pdf
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    Bibliographic Info

    Paper provided by Stanford University, Graduate School of Business in its series Research Papers with number 1998.

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    Date of creation: Aug 2008
    Date of revision:
    Handle: RePEc:ecl:stabus:1998

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    Postal: Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-5015
    Phone: (650) 723-2146
    Fax: (650)725-6750
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    Web page: http://gsbapps.stanford.edu/researchpapers/
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    1. Cassie Mogilner & Jennifer L. Aaker & Ginger L. Pennington, 2008. "Time Will Tell: The Distant Appeal of Promotion and Imminent Appeal of Prevention," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34(5), pages 670-681, 08.
    2. Shiv, Baba & Fedorikhin, Alexander, 1999. " Heart and Mind in Conflict: The Interplay of Affect and Cognition in Consumer Decision Making," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(3), pages 278-92, December.
    3. DeVoe, Sanford E. & Pfeffer, Jeffrey, 2007. "When time is money: The effect of hourly payment on the evaluation of time," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 104(1), pages 1-13, September.
    4. Nedungadi, Prakash, 1990. " Recall and Consumer Consideration Sets: Influencing Choice without Altering Brand Evaluations," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 17(3), pages 263-76, December.
    5. Strahilevitz, Michal & Myers, John G, 1998. " Donations to Charity as Purchase Incentives: How Well They Work May Depend on What You Are Trying to Sell," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 24(4), pages 434-46, March.
    6. Pham, Michel Tuan, 1998. " Representativeness, Relevance, and the Use of Feelings in Decision Making," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 25(2), pages 144-59, September.
    7. Zipora Magen, 1996. "Commitment beyond self and adolescence: The issue of happiness," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 37(3), pages 235-267, March.
    8. Morwitz, Vicki G & Johnson, Eric J & Schmittlein, David C, 1993. " Does Measuring Intent Change Behavior?," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 20(1), pages 46-61, June.
    9. Leclerc, France & Schmitt, Bernd H & Dube, Laurette, 1995. " Waiting Time and Decision Making: Is Time like Money?," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(1), pages 110-19, June.
    10. Loewenstein, George, 1987. "Anticipation and the Valuation of Delayed Consumption," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 97(387), pages 666-84, September.
    11. Patti Williams & Aimee Drolet, 2005. "Age-Related Differences in Responses to Emotional Advertisements," Journal of Consumer Research, University of Chicago Press, vol. 32(3), pages 343-354, December.
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    Cited by:
    1. Aaker, Jennifer L. & Garbinsky, Emily N. & Vohs, Kathleen D., 2011. "Cultivating Admiration in Brands: Warmth, Competence, and Landing in the "Golden Quadrant"," Research Papers 2087, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    2. HASAN, HAMID & Khan, Hayat, 2013. "Testing the Existence of Hedonic Adaptation and Inertia to Income with implications for Islamic economics: a case of Pakistan," MPRA Paper 44927, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Promothesh Chatterjee & Randall Rose & Jayati Sinha, 2013. "Why money meanings matter in decisions to donate time and money," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 109-118, June.
    4. Alexander L. Brown & Jonathan Meer & J. Forrest Williams, 2013. "Why Do People Volunteer? An Experimental Analysis of Preferences for Time Donations," NBER Working Papers 19066, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Michel, GĂ©raldine & Rieunier, Sophie, 2012. "Nonprofit brand image and typicality influences on charitable giving," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 65(5), pages 701-707.
    6. Jae-Eun Kim & Kim Johnson, 2013. "The Impact of Moral Emotions on Cause-Related Marketing Campaigns: A Cross-Cultural Examination," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 112(1), pages 79-90, January.
    7. Newman, George E. & Jeremy Shen, Y., 2012. "The counterintuitive effects of thank-you gifts on charitable giving," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 33(5), pages 973-983.
    8. Aaker, Jennifer L. & Rudd, Melanie & Mogilner, Cassie, 2010. "If Money Doesn't Make You Happy, Consider Time," Research Papers 2067, Stanford University, Graduate School of Business.
    9. Binder, Martin & Freytag, Andreas, 2013. "Volunteering, subjective well-being and public policy," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 97-119.
    10. Sebastian Lehmann & Martin Reimann, 2012. "The influence of time and money on product evaluations - a neurophysiological analysis," FEMM Working Papers 120011, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Faculty of Economics and Management.
    11. Lin-Healy, Fern & Small, Deborah A., 2012. "Cheapened altruism: Discounting personally affected prosocial actors," Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Elsevier, vol. 117(2), pages 269-274.
    12. Luqiong Tong & Yuhuang Zheng & Ping Zhao, 2013. "Is money really the root of all evil? The impact of priming money on consumer choice," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 24(2), pages 119-129, June.
    13. van Diepen, M. & Donkers, B. & Franses, Ph.H.B.F., 2008. "Does Irritation Induced by Charitable Direct Mailings Reduce Donations?," ERIM Report Series Research in Management ERS-2008-036-MKT, Erasmus Research Institute of Management (ERIM), ERIM is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University and the Erasmus School of Economics (ESE) at Erasmus Uni.

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