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Leverage Across Firms, Banks and Countries

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  • Kalemli-Ozcan, Sebnem
  • Sørensen, Bent E
  • Yesiltas, Sevcan

Abstract

We present new stylized facts on bank and firm leverage for 2000-2009 using extensive internationally comparable micro level data from several countries. The main result is that there was very little buildup in leverage for the average non-financial firm and commercial bank before the crisis, but the picture was quite different for large commercial banks States and for investment banks worldwide. We document the following patterns: a) there was an increase in leverage ratios of investment banks and financial firms during the early 2000s; b) there was no visible increase for commercial banks and non-financial firms; c) off balance-sheet items constitute a big fraction of assets, especially for large commercial banks in the United States; d) the leverage ratio is procyclical for investment banks and for large commercial banks in the United States; e) banks in emerging markets with tighter bank regulation and stronger investor protection experienced significantly less deleveraging during the crisis. These results show that excessive risk taking before the crisis was not easily detectable because the risk involved the quality rather than the amount of assets.

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Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 8549.

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Date of creation: Aug 2011
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:8549

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Keywords: banks; crisis; firms; international; leverage;

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Hsu, Sara, 2012. "The US financial system, the great recession, and the “speculative spread”," MPRA Paper 38478, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Russo, Alberto, 2013. "Financial Fragility and Macroeconomic Instability in a Heterogeneous Interacting Agents Framework," MPRA Paper 46578, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. Adrian Van Rixtel & Gabriele Gasperini, 2013. "Financial crises and bank funding: recent experience in the euro area," BIS Working Papers 406, Bank for International Settlements.
  4. Riccetti, Luca & Russo, Alberto & Gallegati, Mauro, 2013. "Leveraged network-based financial accelerator," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1626-1640.
  5. A. Baglioni & E. Beccalli & A. Boitani & A. Monticini, 2013. "Is the leverage of European banks procyclical?," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 1251-1266, December.
  6. Riccetti, Luca & Russo, Alberto & Mauro, Gallegati, 2013. "Financial Regulation in an Agent Based Macroeconomic Model," MPRA Paper 51013, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  7. Antoine Godin & Stephen Kinsella, 2012. "Leverage, liquidity and crisis: A simulation study," ASSRU Discussion Papers 1205, ASSRU - Algorithmic Social Science Research Unit.
  8. Queraltó, Albert, 2013. "A Model of Slow Recoveries from Financial Crises," International Finance Discussion Papers 1097, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  9. Ricetti, Luca & Russo, Alberto & Gallegati, Mauro, 2013. "Unemployment benefits and financial leverage in an agent based macroeconomic model," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy, vol. 7(42), pages 1-44.
  10. Lendvai, Julia & Raciborski, Rafal & Vogel, Lukas, 2013. "Macroeconomic effects of an equity transaction tax in a general-equilibrium model," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 466-482.
  11. Teixeira, João C.A. & Silva, Francisco J.F. & Fernandes, Ana V. & Alves, Ana C.G., 2014. "Banks’ capital, regulation and the financial crisis," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 33-58.
  12. Riccetti, Luca & Russo, Alberto & Gallegati, Mauro, 2013. "Financialisation and Crisis in an Agent Based Macroeconomomic Model," MPRA Paper 51074, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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