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Is the WTO's Article XXIV Bad?

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  • Mrázová, Monika
  • Vines, David
  • Zissimos, Ben

Abstract

This paper shows that the WTO's Article XXIV increases the likelihood of free trade, but may worsen world welfare when free trade is not reached and customs unions (CUs) form. We consider a model of many countries. Article XXIV prevents a CU from raising its common external tariff, which makes CU formation less attractive and explains why free trade is more likely. In an equilibrium where two CUs do form, one is necessarily larger than the other. We show that Article XXIV has a 'composition effect' on CU formation, whereby CUs are (endogenously) less asymmetric in size so more goods are subject to tariff distortions as they move between CUs; thus Article XXIV may be 'bad' for world welfare.

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Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 7144.

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Date of creation: Jan 2009
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:7144

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Keywords: Coalition formation game; customs union; protection; trade block; trade liberalization;

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Cited by:
  1. Kamal Saggi & Alan Woodland & Halis Murat Yildiz, 2013. "On the Relationship between Preferential and Multilateral Trade Liberalization: The Case of Customs Unions," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(1), pages 63-99, February.
  2. Jorzik, Nathalie & Mueller-Langer, Frank, 2013. "Multilateral Stability and Efficiency of Trade Agreements: A Network Formation Approach," Discussion Papers in Economics 14587, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  3. Ben Zissimos, 2010. "Why are Trade Agreements Regional?," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 1002, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  4. Constantinos Syropoulos, 2002. "On Tariff Preferences And Delegation Decisions In Customs Unions: A Heckscher--Ohlin Approach," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 112(481), pages 625-648, July.

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