Tying-in Two-Sided Markets and the Honour All Cards Rule
AbstractPayment card associations offer both debit and credit cards and, until recently, engaged in a tie-in on the merchant side through the so-called honour-all-cards (HAC) rule. The HAC rule came under attack on the grounds that the credit and debit card markets are separate markets and that the associations lever their market power in the 'credit card market' to exclude on-line debit cards and thereby monopolize the 'debit card market'. This article analyzes the impact of the HAC rule, using a simple model with two types of transactions (debit and credit) and two platforms. In the benchmark model, in the absence of HAC rule, the interchange fee (IF, the transfer from the merchant’s bank to the cardholder’s bank) on debit is socially too low, and that on credit is either optimal or too high (depending on downstream members’ market power). In either case, the HAC rule not only benefits the multi-card platform but also raises social welfare, due to a rebalancing effect: The HAC rule allows the multi-card platform to better perform the balancing act by raising the IF on debit and lowering it on credit, ultimately raising volume. The paper then investigates a number of extensions of the benchmark model, including varying degrees of substitutability between debit and credit; merchant heterogeneity; and platform differentiation. While the HAC rule may no longer raise social welfare under all values of the parameters, the basic and socially beneficial rebalancing effect unveiled in the benchmark model is robust.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 6132.
Date of creation: Feb 2007
Date of revision:
Contact details of provider:
Postal: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 77 Bastwick Street, London EC1V 3PZ
Phone: 44 - 20 - 7183 8801
Fax: 44 - 20 - 7183 8820
Other versions of this item:
- Rochet, Jean Charles & Tirole, Jean, 2008. "Tying in two-sided markets and the honor all cards rule," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 1333-1347, November.
- Rochet, Jean-Charles & Tirole, Jean, 2006. "Tying in Two-Sided Markets and the Honor All Cards Rule," IDEI Working Papers 440, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse, revised 2007.
- L5 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy
- L82 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Entertainment; Media
- L86 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Information and Internet Services; Computer Software
- L96 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Telecommunications
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ALL-2007-03-03 (All new papers)
- NEP-COM-2007-03-03 (Industrial Competition)
- NEP-MIC-2007-03-03 (Microeconomics)
- NEP-NET-2007-03-03 (Network Economics)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Dennis W. Carlton & Michael Waldman, 1998.
"The Strategic Use of Tying to Preserve and Create Market Power in Evolving Industries,"
NBER Working Papers
6831, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dennis W. Carlton & Michael Waldman, 2002. "The Strategic Use of Tying to Preserve and Create Market Power in Evolving Industries," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 33(2), pages 194-220, Summer.
- Dennis W. Carlton & Michael Waldman, 1998. "The Strategic Use Of Tying To Preserve And Create Market Power In Evolving Industries," University of Chicago - George G. Stigler Center for Study of Economy and State 145, Chicago - Center for Study of Economy and State.
- Richard Schmalensee, 2001.
"Payment Systems and Interchange Fees,"
NBER Working Papers
8256, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Julian Wright, 2001.
"The Determinants of Optimal Interchange Fees in Payment Systems,"
- Julian Wright, 2004. "The Determinants of Optimal Interchange Fees in Payment Systems," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 52(1), pages 1-26, 03.
- Jean‐Charles Rochet & Jean Tirole, 2006.
"Two‐sided markets: a progress report,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
RAND Corporation, vol. 37(3), pages 645-667, 09.
- Jean-Charles Rochet Author-Email:email@example.com Author-Workplace-Name: IDEI, University of Toulouse & Jean Tirole Author-Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Author-Workplace-Name: IDEI, University of Toulouse, 2006. "Two-Sided Markets: A Progress Report," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 37(3), pages 645-667, Autumn.
- Rochet, Jean-Charles & Tirole, Jean, 2005. "Two-Sided Markets : A Progress Report," IDEI Working Papers 275, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
- Rochet, Jean-Charles & Tirole, Jean, 2006. "Two-Sided Markets: A Progress Report," Open Access publications from University of Toulouse 1 Capitole http://neeo.univ-tlse1.fr, University of Toulouse 1 Capitole.
- Michael D. Whinston, 1989.
"Tying, Foreclosure, and Exclusion,"
NBER Working Papers
2995, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mark Armstrong, 2005.
"Competition in Two-Sided Markets,"
- Mark Armstrong Author-Email: email@example.com Author-Workplace-Name: University College of London, 2006. "Competition in Two-Sided Markets," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 37(3), pages 668-691, Autumn.
- Mark Armstrong, 2006. "Competition in two‐sided markets," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 37(3), pages 668-691, 09.
- Armstrong, M., 2006. "Competition in two-sided markets," Open Access publications from University College London http://discovery.ucl.ac.u, University College London.
- Baxter, William F, 1983. "Bank Interchange of Transactional Paper: Legal and Economic Perspectives," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(3), pages 541-88, October.
- Rey, Patrick & Seabright, Paul & Tirole, Jean, 2001. "The Activities of a Monopoly Firm in Adjacent Competitive Markets: Economic Consequences and Implications for Competition Policy," IDEI Working Papers 132, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse, revised 2002.
- George-Marios Angeletos, 2001. "The Hyberbolic Consumption Model: Calibration, Simulation, and Empirical Evaluation," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(3), pages 47-68, Summer.
- Carbajo, Jose & de Meza, David & Seidmann, Daniel J, 1990. "A Strategic Motivation for Commodity Bundling," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(3), pages 283-98, March.
- Kong-Pin Chen & Yen-Chi Huang, 2012.
"A Search-Matching Model of the Buyer--Seller Platforms,"
CESifo Economic Studies,
CESifo, vol. 58(4), pages 626-649, December.
- Chen, Kong-Pin & Yen-Chi, Huang, 2009. "A search-matching model of the buyer-seller platforms," MPRA Paper 38372, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Dec 2011.
- Audrey Boilley, 2013. "Duopoly Competition and Regulation in a Two-Sided Health Care Insurance Market with Product Differentiation," Working Papers 2013-02, CRESE.
- Dragoi, Ionut Mihai, 2013. "The Interchange Fees - A Comparison between Optimal Private and Social Levels," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(1), pages 24-38, March.
- Bruno Jullien, 2004. "Two-Sided Markets and Electronic Intermediaries," CESifo Working Paper Series 1345, CESifo Group Munich.
- Matttia De' Grassi Di Pianura, 2012. "Subsidising network technology adoption the case of publishers and E-readers," Working Papers hal-00714447, HAL.
- Jullien, Bruno, 2004. "Two-Sided Markets and Electronic Intermediation," IDEI Working Papers 295, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ().
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.