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Tying in Two-Sided Markets with Multi-Homing

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  • Jay Pil Choi

Abstract

This paper analyzes the effects of tying arrangements on market competition and social welfare in two-sided markets when economic agents can engage in multi-homing; that is, they can participate in multiple platforms in order to reap maximal network benefits. The model shows that tying induces more consumers to multi-home and makes platform-specific exclusive contents available to more consumers, which is also beneficial to content providers. As a result, tying can be welfare-enhancing if multi-homing is allowed, even in cases where its welfare impacts are negative in the absence of multi-homing. The analysis thus can have important implications for recent antitrust cases in industries where multi-homing is prevalent.

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File URL: http://www.cesifo-group.de/portal/page/portal/DocBase_Content/WP/WP-CESifo_Working_Papers/wp-cesifo-2007/wp-cesifo-2007-08/cesifo1_wp2073.pdf
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 2073.

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Date of creation: 2007
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_2073

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Related research

Keywords: tying; two-sided markets; (indirect) network effects; multi-homing;

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References

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  1. Joseph Farrell & Paul Klemperer, 2006. "Co-ordination and Lock-in: Competition with Switching Costs and Network Effects," Economics Papers 2006-W07, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
  2. Mark Armstrong, 2006. "Competition in two‐sided markets," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 37(3), pages 668-691, 09.
  3. Dennis W. Carlton & Michael Waldman, 1998. "The Strategic Use of Tying to Preserve and Create Market Power in Evolving Industries," NBER Working Papers 6831, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Doganoglu, Toker & Wright, Julian, 2006. "Multihoming and compatibility," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 45-67, January.
  5. Doganoglu, Toker & Wright, Julian, 2010. "Exclusive dealing with network effects," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 145-154, March.
  6. Amelio, Andrea & Jullien, Bruno, 2007. "Tying and Freebies in Two-Sided Markets," IDEI Working Papers 445, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse.
  7. Carbajo, Jose & de Meza, David & Seidmann, Daniel J, 1990. "A Strategic Motivation for Commodity Bundling," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(3), pages 283-98, March.
  8. Choi, Jay Pil, 1996. "Preemptive R&D, Rent Dissipation, and the "Leverage Theory."," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 111(4), pages 1153-81, November.
  9. Juan D. Carrillo & Guofu Tan, 2006. "Platform Competition: The Role of Multi-homing and Complementors," Working Papers 06-30, NET Institute, revised Oct 2006.
  10. Chen, Yongmin, 1997. "Equilibrium Product Bundling," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 70(1), pages 85-103, January.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Nicholas Economides & Joacim Tåg, 2007. "Net Neutrality on the Internet: A Two-sided Market Analysis," Working Papers 07-45, NET Institute, revised Nov 2007.
  2. Pollock, Rufus, 2005. "The Control of Porting in Two-Sided Markets," MPRA Paper 5023, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Jun 2007.
  3. Bas, Maria & Ledezma, Ivan, 2007. "Market Access and the Evolution of within Plant Productivity in Chile," Economics Papers from University Paris Dauphine 123456789/6913, Paris Dauphine University.
  4. Doganoglu, Toker & Wright, Julian, 2010. "Exclusive dealing with network effects," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 145-154, March.

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