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Endogenous land use and supply, and food security in Brazil


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  • Joaquim Ferreira-Filho
  • Mark Horridge


Agriculture area and production has expanded greatly in Brazil during the last 40 years. The area of annual crops almost doubled, while the area planted for pastures and forestry tripled. However, the rate of deforestation has considerably reduced since 2004. In this paper we analyze the effect of slower forest clearing on food supply and the economy in Brazil, in the presence of increasing world food prices. A multi-period computable general equilibrium model, based on previous work of the authors, is used to analyze the importance of endogenous land supply for agriculture in Brazil. The model includes annual recursive dynamics and a detailed bottom-up regional representation, which for the simulations reported here distinguished 15 aggregated Brazilian regions. It also has 36 sectors, 10 household types, 10 labor grades, and a land use change (LUC) module which tracks land use in each state. The core database is based on the 2005 Brazilian Input-Output model. The LUC model is based on a transition matrix calibrated with data from the Agricultural Censuses of 1995 and 2006, which shows how land use changed across different uses (crops, pastures, forestry and natural forests) between those years. This transition matrix is used to project the deforestation rate (or the increase in total land supply) in the baseline scenario, for the period 2005-2025. Results show that a halt in deforestation would decrease Brazilian GDP by about 0.5% in 2025, compared to a baseline which allows deforestation to continue. But there are redistributive effects that policies may need to counteract: regional GDPs would decrease by as much as 6% for states on the agricultural frontier, and food prices rise by around 2%, slightly raising the cost of living for poorer households.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre in its series Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers with number g-229.

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Date of creation: Jul 2012
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in 'Ethanol Expansion and Indirect Land Use Change in Brazil', Land Use Policy, Volume 36, January 2014, Pages 595-604, Elsevier.
Handle: RePEc:cop:wpaper:g-229

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Keywords: CGE; food prices; land use; Brazil;

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  1. Keeney, Roman & Hertel, Thomas, 2008. "The Indirect Land Use Impacts of U.S. Biofuel Policies: The Importance of Acreage, Yield, and Bilateral Trade Responses," GTAP Working Papers, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University 2810, Center for Global Trade Analysis, Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University.
  2. Joaquim Bento Ferreira-Filho & Mark Horridge, 2011. "Ethanol Expansion and Indirect Land Use Change in Brazil," Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre Working Papers, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre g-218, Victoria University, Centre of Policy Studies/IMPACT Centre.
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Cited by:
  1. Zhang, Da & Rausch, Sebastian & Karplus, Valerie J. & Zhang, Xiliang, 2013. "Quantifying regional economic impacts of CO2 intensity targets in China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 687-701.


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