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Was it worth it? An empirical analysis of over-education among Ph.D. recipients in Italy

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  • Giuseppe Lucio Gaeta

    ()
    (University of Naples L’Orientale, Department of Social Sciences and Humanities)

Abstract

This paper aims to provide an empirical examination of factors associated with overeducation among Ph.D. graduates in Italy. Our investigation is based on recently released data collected by the Italian National Institute of Statistics by means of interviews with a large sample of Ph.D. recipients, carried out a few years after they obtained their Ph.D. degree. We measured the mismatch between their current job and previous Ph.D. studies using two direct subjective evaluations of over-education, which distinguish between the usefulness of the Ph.D. title to get the current job position and to perform the current work activities. Even if the incidence of over-education varies according to the measurement applied, we found that it is highly widespread among Ph.D. recipients. Our econometric analyses are aimed at identifying factors associated with over-education and are based on the standard probit model and the bivariate probit model with sample selection which allows to control for self selection into employment. Our results show that over-education is significantly correlated with: i) a number of Ph-D. related variables, such as the scientific field of study, having attended courses or visiting periods abroad; ii) some job-related characteristics, such as working in the academia or being mainly involved in research related activities; iii) the channel of access to the job; iv) residential location. This paper contributes to the literature focusing on job-education mismatch by providing, to the best of our knowledge, the first empirical analysis of over-education among Ph.D. recipients in Italy; moreover, it provides some useful insights to evaluate the professional doctoral graduates in Italy.

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File URL: http://193.205.129.80/repec/cme/wpaper/cmetwp_02_2013.pdf
File Function: First version, 2013
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by c.MET-05 - Centro interuniversitario di Economia Applicata alle Politiche per L'industria, lo Sviluppo locale e l'Internazionalizzazione in its series Working Papers with number 1302.

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Length: 18 pages
Date of creation: Sep 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cme:wpaper:1302

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Web page: http://www.cmet.it
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Keywords: over-education; Ph.D. recipients; self-selection;

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References

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  1. Richard R. Verdugo & Naomi Turner Verdugo, 1989. "The Impact of Surplus Schooling on Earnings: Some Additional Findings," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 24(4), pages 629-643.
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  3. Floro Ernesto Caroleo & Francesco Pastore, 2014. "Overeducation at a glance. Determinants and wage effects of the educational mismatch, looking at the AlmaLaurea data," Working Papers 58, AlmaLaurea Inter-University Consortium.
  4. Groot, Wim & Maassen van den Brink, Henriette, 2000. "Overeducation in the labor market: a meta-analysis," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 149-158, April.
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  7. Duncan, Greg J. & Hoffman, Saul D., 1981. "The incidence and wage effects of overeducation," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 1(1), pages 75-86, February.
  8. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
  9. D. Verhaest & E. Omey, 2009. "The Determinants of Overeducation: Different Measures, Different Outcomes?," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 09/592, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
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  12. Patrizia Ordine & Giuseppe Rose, 2009. "Overeducation and Instructional Quality: A Theoretical Model and Some Facts," Journal of Human Capital, University of Chicago Press, vol. 3(1), pages 73-105.
  13. Keith Bender & John Heywood, 2011. "Educational mismatch and the careers of scientists," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(3), pages 253-274.
  14. Sicherman, Nachum, 1991. ""Overeducation" in the Labor Market," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 9(2), pages 101-22, April.
  15. Lee, Hsing-fen & Miozzo, Marcela & Laredo, Philippe, 2010. "Career patterns and competences of PhDs in science and engineering in the knowledge economy: The case of graduates from a UK research-based university," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(7), pages 869-881, September.
  16. Mary Silles & Peter Dolton, 2002. "The Effects of Over-Education on Earnings in the Graduate Labour Market," Economics Series Working Papers 126, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  17. Tsang, Mun Chiu, 1987. "The impact of underutilization of education on productivity: A case study of the U.S. Bell companies," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 239-254, June.
  18. Arnaud Chevalier, 2003. "Measuring Over-education," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 70(279), pages 509-531, 08.
  19. Dolton, Peter & Vignoles, Anna, 2000. "The incidence and effects of overeducation in the U.K. graduate labour market," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 179-198, April.
  20. Sattinger, Michael, 1993. "Assignment Models of the Distribution of Earnings," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 31(2), pages 831-80, June.
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