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Why Did ?Zombie? Firms Recover in Japan?

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  • Shin-ichi Fukuda

    (Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo)

  • Jun-ichi Nakamura

    (Development Bank of Japan)

Abstract

The Japanese economy experienced prolonged recessions during the 1990s. Previous studies suggest that evergreen lending to troubled firms known as ?zombie firms? distorted market discipline in terms of stabilizing the Japanese economy and caused significant delays in the economy?s recovery. However, the eventual bankruptcy of zombies was rare. In fact, a majority of the ?zombie? firms substantially recovered during the first half of the 2000s. The purpose of this paper is to investigate why zombie firms recovered in Japan. We first extend the method of Caballero, Hoshi, and Kashyap (2008) and identify zombies from among the listed firms. Subsequently, we investigate the nature of corporate restructuring that was effective in reviving zombie firms. Our multinomial logistic regressions suggest that reducing the employee strength of zombie firms and selling its fixed assets were beneficial in facilitating their recovery. However, corporate restructuring without accounting transparency or by discouraging incentives for managers was ineffective. In addition, corporate restructuring lacked effectiveness in the absence of favorable macroeconomic environment as well as substantial external financial support.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Center for Advanced Research in Finance, Faculty of Economics, The University of Tokyo in its series CARF F-Series with number CARF-F-224.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: Jul 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cfi:fseres:cf224

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  1. Shin-Ichi Fukuda & Satoshi Koibuchi, 2006. "The Impacts Of "Shock Therapy" Under A Banking Crisis: Experiences From Three Large Bank Failures In Japan," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 57(2), pages 232-256.
  2. Fukuda, Shin-ichi & Koibuchi, Satoshi, 2006. "The Impacts of "Shock Therapy" on Large and Small Clients: Experiences from Two Large Bank Failures in Japan," CEI Working Paper Series 2006-8, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  3. Joe Peek & Eric S. Rosengren, 2003. "Unnatural Selection: Perverse Incentives and the Misallocation of Credit in Japan," NBER Working Papers 9643, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Alan G. Ahearne & Naoki Shinada, 2005. "Zombie Firms and Economic Stagnation in Japan," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d05-95, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  5. Mathias Dewatripont & Eric Maskin, 1995. "Credit and efficiency in centralized and decentralized economies," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9603, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  6. Boot, Arnoud W. A., 2000. "Relationship Banking: What Do We Know?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 7-25, January.
  7. Berglof Erik & Roland Gerard, 1995. "Bank Restructuring and Soft Budget Constraints in Financial Transition," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 354-375, December.
  8. Hanazaki, Masaharu & Horiuchi, Akiyoshi, 2003. "A review of Japan's bank crisis from the governance perspective," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 11(3), pages 305-325, July.
  9. Fukuda, Shin-ichi & Kasuya, Munehisa & Akashi, Kentaro, 2009. "Impaired bank health and default risk," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 145-162, April.
  10. Ricardo J. Caballero & Takeo Hoshi & Anil K. Kashyap, 2006. "Zombie Lending and Depressed Restructuring in Japan," NBER Working Papers 12129, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  11. Hoshi, Takeo & Kashyap, Anil K., 1990. "Evidence on q and investment for Japanese firms," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 371-400, December.
  12. Sekine, Toshitaka & Kobayashi, Keiichiro & Saita, Yumi, 2003. "Forbearance Lending: The Case of Japanese Firms," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 21(2), pages 69-92, August.
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Cited by:
  1. Emmanuel de Veirman & Andrew Levin, 2012. "When Did Firms Become More Different? Time-Varying Firm-Specific Volatility in Japan," DNB Working Papers 351, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
  2. Kentaro Imai, 2013. "A Panel Study of eZombief SMEs in Japan: Identification, Borrowing and Investment Behavior," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 13-16, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).
  3. Kaoru Hosono & Miho Takizawa, 2012. "Do Financial Frictions Matter as a Source of Misallocation? Evidence from Japan," Discussion papers ron246, Policy Research Institute, Ministry of Finance Japan.

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