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Forbearance Lending: The Case of Japanese Firms

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  • Sekine, Toshitaka

    (Bank of Japan)

  • Kobayashi, Keiichiro

    (Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry)

  • Saita, Yumi

    (Bank of Japan)

Abstract

After the collapse of the asset price bubble, Japanese banks are said to refinance firms, even in cases where there is little prospect of firms repaying the loans extended. This phenomenon is known as " forbearance lending." We find the evidence which is consistent with the view that forbearance lending certainly took place, and that it suppressed the profitability of inefficient nonmanufacturing firms. First, contrary to the usual expectation, we find that outstanding loans were apt to increase to a firm whose debt-asset ratio exceeded a certain level: after the bubble burst, this nonlinear relationship between loans and debt-asset ratios became evident for nonmanufacturing firms, especially those in the construction and real estate industries. Furthermore, we also find that an increase in loans to highly indebted firms in these industries lowered their profitability.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan in its journal Monetary and Economic Studies.

Volume (Year): 21 (2003)
Issue (Month): 2 (August)
Pages: 69-92

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Handle: RePEc:ime:imemes:v:21:y:2003:i:2:p:69-92

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  1. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
  2. Frank Windmeijer, 2000. "A finite sample correction for the variance of linear two-step GMM estimators," IFS Working Papers W00/19, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  3. Toshitaka Sekine, 1999. "Firm Investment and Balance-Sheet Problems in Japan," IMF Working Papers 99/111, International Monetary Fund.
  4. David E. Weinstein & Yishay Yafeh, 1998. "On the Costs of a Bank-Centered Financial System: Evidence from the Changing Main Bank Relations in Japan," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(2), pages 635-672, 04.
  5. Berglof, Erik & Roland, Gerard, 1997. "Soft budget constraints and credit crunches in financial transition," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-5), pages 807-817, April.
  6. Arellano, Manuel & Bond, Stephen, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 58(2), pages 277-97, April.
  7. Oda, Nobuyuki, 1999. "Estimating Fair Premium Rates for Deposit Insurance Using Option Pricing Theory: An Empirical Study of Japanese Banks," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 17(1), pages 133-170, May.
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