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Assessing Multi-Dimensional Performance: Environmental and Economic Outcomes

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  • Ronald Shadbegian
  • Wayne Gray

Abstract

This study examines the determinants of environmental and economic performance for plants in three traditional smoke-stack industries: pulp and paper, oil, and steel. We combine data from Census Bureau and EPA databases and Compustat on the economic performance, regulatory activity and environmental performance on air and water pollution emissions and toxic releases. We find that plants with higher labor productivity tend to have lower emissions. Regulatory enforcement actions (but not inspections) are associated with lower emissions, and state-level political support for environmental issues is associated with lower water pollution and toxic releases. There is little evidence that plants owned by larger firms perform better, nor do older plants perform worse.

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File URL: ftp://ftp2.census.gov/ces/wp/2005/CES-WP-05-03.pdf
File Function: First version, 2005
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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau in its series Working Papers with number 05-03.

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Length: 32 pages
Date of creation: May 2005
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cen:wpaper:05-03

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Keywords: Environmental Performance; Labor Productivity; Emissions; Enforcement Activity; Technology;

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References

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  1. Aigner, Dennis & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Schmidt, Peter, 1977. "Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 21-37, July.
  2. Eli Berman & Linda T.M. Bui, 1998. "Environmental Regulation and Productivity: Evidence from Oil Refineries," Papers, Boston University - Industry Studies Programme 0091, Boston University - Industry Studies Programme.
  3. Zvi Griliches & Jacques Mairesse, 1995. "Production Functions: The Search for Identification," NBER Working Papers 5067, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Wayne B Gray & Ronald J Shadbegian, 2001. "Plant Vintage, Technology, and Environmental Regulation," Working Papers 01-08, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  5. Shadbegian Ronald J & Gray Wayne B, 2003. "What Determines Environmental Performance at Paper Mills? The Roles of Abatement Spending, Regulation, and Efficiency," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 3(1), pages 1-20, November.
  6. Harrington, Winston, 1988. "Enforcement leverage when penalties are restricted," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 29-53, October.
  7. Gray, Wayne B, 1987. "The Cost of Regulation: OSHA, EPA and the Productivity Slowdown," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 998-1006, December.
  8. Mary E. Deily & Wayne B. Gray, 1989. "Enforcement of pollution regulations in a declining industry," Working Paper 8912, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland.
  9. Gollop, Frank M & Roberts, Mark J, 1983. "Environmental Regulations and Productivity Growth: The Case of Fossil-Fueled Electric Power Generation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(4), pages 654-74, August.
  10. Randy Becker, 2001. "Air Pollution Abatement Costs Under the Clean Air Act: Evidence from the PACE Survey," Working Papers 01-12, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  11. Bernstein, Mark A. & Feldman, Stephen L. & Schinnar, Arie P., 1990. "Impact of pollution controls on the productivity of coal-fired power plants," Energy Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 11-17, January.
  12. Gray, Wayne B. & Deily, Mary E., 1996. "Compliance and Enforcement: Air Pollution Regulation in the U.S. Steel Industry," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 96-111, July.
  13. Magat, Wesley A & Viscusi, W Kip, 1990. "Effectiveness of the EPA's Regulatory Enforcement: The Case of Industrial Effluent Standards," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(2), pages 331-60, October.
  14. Boyd, Gale A. & McClelland, John D., 1999. "The Impact of Environmental Constraints on Productivity Improvement in Integrated Paper Plants," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 121-142, September.
  15. Aiken, Deborah Vaughn & Pasurka, Carl Jr., 2003. "Adjusting the measurement of US manufacturing productivity for air pollution emissions control," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 329-351, October.
  16. Ronald Shadbegian & Wayne Gray, 2003. "Pollution Abatement Expenditures and Plant-Level Productivity: A Production Function Approach," Working Papers 03-16, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  17. Pitt, Mark M. & Lee, Lung-Fei, 1981. "The measurement and sources of technical inefficiency in the Indonesian weaving industry," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 43-64, August.
  18. Eric J. Bartelsman & Wayne Gray, 1996. "The NBER Manufacturing Productivity Database," NBER Technical Working Papers 0205, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Nadeau, Louis W., 1997. "EPA Effectiveness at Reducing the Duration of Plant-Level Noncompliance," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 54-78, September.
  20. Fare, Rolf, et al, 1989. "Multilateral Productivity Comparisons When Some Outputs Are Undesirable: A Nonparametric Approach," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(1), pages 90-98, February.
  21. Laplante, Benoit & Rilstone, Paul, 1996. "Environmental Inspections and Emissions of the Pulp and Paper Industry in Quebec," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 19-36, July.
  22. Robert H Mcguckin & George A Pascoe, 1988. "The Longitudinal Research Database (LRD): Status And Research Possibilities," Working Papers 88-2, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Daniel Matisoff, 2012. "Privatizing Climate Change Policy: Is there a Public Benefit?," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 53(3), pages 409-433, November.
  2. Ralf Martin & Mirabelle Muûls & Ulrich J. Wagner & Laure B. de Preux, 2010. "Anatomy of a Paradox: Management Practices, Organisational Structure and Energy Efficiency," CEP Discussion Papers dp1039, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  3. Leonardo Becchetti & Rocco Ciciretti & Alessandro Giovannelli, 2012. "Corporate Social Responsibility and Earnings Forecasting Unbiasedness," CEIS Research Paper 233, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 08 Feb 2013.
  4. Ronald J. Shadbegian & Wayne B. Gray & Chumbei Wang & Merve Cebi, 2013. "Do EPA Regulations Affect Labor Demand? Evidence from the Pulp and Paper Industry," NCEE Working Paper Series, National Center for Environmental Economics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 201303, National Center for Environmental Economics, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, revised Aug 2013.
  5. Deborah Aiken & Rolf Färe & Shawna Grosskopf & Carl Pasurka, 2009. "Pollution Abatement and Productivity Growth: Evidence from Germany, Japan, the Netherlands, and the United States," Environmental & Resource Economics, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 44(1), pages 11-28, September.
  6. Shital Sharma, 2013. "Environmental Regulation, Abatement, and Productivity: A Frontier Analysis," Working Papers 13-51, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
  7. Leonardo Becchetti & Giovanni Trovato, 2011. "Corporate social responsibility and firm efficiency: a latent class stochastic frontier analysis," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, Springer, vol. 36(3), pages 231-246, December.
  8. Linn, Joshua & Mastrangelo, Erin & Burtraw, Dallas, 2013. "Regulating Greenhouse Gases from Coal Power Plants under the Clean Air Act," Discussion Papers, Resources For the Future dp-13-05, Resources For the Future.
  9. Thomas Broberg & Per-Olov Marklund & Eva Samakovlis & Henrik Hammar, 2013. "Testing the Porter hypothesis: the effects of environmental investments on efficiency in Swedish industry," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, Springer, vol. 40(1), pages 43-56, August.
  10. Brännlund, Runar & Lundgren, Tommy & Marklund, Per-Olov, 2014. "Carbon intensity in production and the effects of climate policy—Evidence from Swedish industry," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 844-857.
  11. Fleishman, Rachel & Alexander, Rob & Bretschneider, Stuart & Popp, David, 2009. "Does regulation stimulate productivity? The effect of air quality policies on the efficiency of US power plants," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 4574-4582, November.
  12. Konishi, Yoshifumi & Tarui, Nori, 2014. "Emissions Trading, Firm Heterogeneity, and Intra-Industry Reallocations in the Long Run," CEI Working Paper Series, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University 2014-1, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  13. Kjetil Telle, 2009. "The threat of regulatory environmental inspection: impact on plant performance," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 154-178, April.

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