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Spatial Structure and Urban Commuting

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  • Song, Shunfeng

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between urban structure and commuting behavior. Analyzing the 1980 journey-to-work data for the Los Angeles region, this paper has shown that polycenteric density functions fit the actual urban structure better than the conventional monocentric model. This finding indicates the preeminence of accessibilty to major employment centers in location choices. This paper also estimates commute flows implied by the polycentric and monocentric functions. It finds the monocentric model very poor at explaining commuting behavior. The empirical results show that polycentric urban structure increases the urban commute. This finding helps to preserve the assumption that urban workers economize on commuting, and suggests that efforts to promote more efficient urban form, such as the jobs-housing balance policy, have the potential to succeed.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by University of California Transportation Center in its series University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers with number qt1962t3j6.

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Date of creation: 01 Aug 1992
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Handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt1962t3j6

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Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences;

References

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  1. Giuliano, Genevieve & Small, Kenneth A., 1991. "Subcenters in the Los Angeles Region," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers, University of California Transportation Center qt7xv976dj, University of California Transportation Center.
  2. Hamilton, Bruce W, 1989. "Wasteful Commuting Again," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(6), pages 1497-1504, December.
  3. Frankena, Mark W., 1978. "A bias in estimating urban population density functions," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 35-45, January.
  4. Helsley, Robert W. & Sullivan, Arthur M., 1991. "Urban subcenter formation," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 255-275, July.
  5. P Gordon & H W Richardson & H L Wong, 1986. "The distribution of population and employment in a polycentric city: the case of Los Angeles," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 18(2), pages 161-173, February.
  6. Cropper, Maureen L. & Gordon, Patrice L., 1991. "Wasteful commuting: A re-examination," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 2-13, January.
  7. R Bussiļæ½re & F Snickars, 1970. "Derivation of the negative exponential model by an entropy maximising method," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 2(3), pages 295-301, March.
  8. Muth, Richard F., 1975. "Numerical solution of urban residential land-use models," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 2(4), pages 307-332, October.
  9. Wheaton, William C., 1974. "A comparative static analysis of urban spatial structure," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 223-237, October.
  10. McDonald, John F., 1987. "The identification of urban employment subcenters," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 242-258, March.
  11. P Gordon & H L Wong, 1985. "The costs of urban sprawl: some new evidence," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 17(5), pages 661-666, May.
  12. Hamilton, Bruce W, 1982. "Wasteful Commuting," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, University of Chicago Press, vol. 90(5), pages 1035-51, October.
  13. Papageorgiou, Yorgos Y. & Pines, David, 1989. "The exponential density function: First principles, comparative statics, and empirical evidence," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 264-268, September.
  14. E Heikkila & P Gordon & J I Kim & R B Peiser & H W Richardson & D Dale-Johnson, 1989. "What happened to the CBD-distance gradient?: land values in a policentric city," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 21(2), pages 221-232, February.
  15. McDonald, John F. & Bowman, H. Woods, 1976. "Some tests of alternative urban population density functions," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 242-252, July.
  16. K Sasaki, 1990. "The establishment of a subcenter and urban spatial structure," Environment and Planning A, Pion Ltd, London, Pion Ltd, London, vol. 22(3), pages 369-383, March.
  17. Kemper, Peter & Schmenner, Roger, 1974. "The density gradient for manufacturing industry," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 410-427, October.
  18. Macauley, Molly K., 1985. "Estimation and recent behavior of urban population and employment density gradients," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 251-260, September.
  19. Michelle J. White, 1990. "Commuting and Congestion: A Simulation Model of a Decentralized Metropolitan Area," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 18(3), pages 335-368.
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