Exclusive Contracts Foster Relationship-Specific Investment
AbstractExclusive contracts prohibit one or both parties from trading with anyone else. Contrary to earlier findings, notably Segal and Whinston (2000), we show that investments that are specific to the contracted parties may be encouraged. Results depend on the nature of the investments and whether the bargaining is cooperative or non-cooperative. The major part of the analysis show that exclusive contracts designed to 'assure' the supply of essential inputs promote investment. Infinite penalties for breach, even if ex post renegotiable, may result in excessive investment, in which case a finite penalty for breach achieves the first-best outcome.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoPaper provided by Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK in its series The Centre for Market and Public Organisation with number 04/105.
Length: 35 pages
Date of creation: Jun 2004
Date of revision:
exclusive dealing; non-cooperative bargaining; liquidated damages; renegotiation; resale;
Find related papers by JEL classification:
- C70 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Game Theory and Bargaining Theory - - - General
- D23 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Organizational Behavior; Transaction Costs; Property Rights
- L42 - Industrial Organization - - Antitrust Issues and Policies - - - Vertical Restraints; Resale Price Maintenance; Quantity Discounts
This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:
- NEP-ACC-2004-08-16 (Accounting & Auditing)
- NEP-ALL-2004-08-16 (All new papers)
- NEP-COM-2004-08-16 (Industrial Competition)
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Aghion, P. & Tirole, J., 1994.
"The management of innovation,"
Open Access publications from University College London
http://discovery.ucl.ac.u, University College London.
- Aghion, Philippe & Bolton, Patrick, 1987. "Contracts as a Barrier to Entry," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(3), pages 388-401, June.
- Bernheim, B.D., 1992.
Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers
1622, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Klein, Benjamin & Saft, Lester F, 1985. "The Law and Economics of Franchise Tying Contracts," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 28(2), pages 345-61, May.
- Masten, Scott E & Snyder, Edward A, 1993. "United States versus United Shoe Machinery Corporation: On the Merits," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 36(1), pages 33-70, April.
- Stole, Lars A & Zwiebel, Jeffrey, 1996. "Intra-firm Bargaining under Non-binding Contracts," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 63(3), pages 375-410, July.
- Oliver Hart & John Moore, 1988.
"Property Rights and the Nature of the Firm,"
495, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Department of Economics.
- Mathewson, Frank & Winter, Ralph, 1994. "Territorial Restrictions in Franchise Contracts," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 32(2), pages 181-92, April.
- Martin J. Osborne & Ariel Rubinstein, 2005. "Bargaining and Markets," Levine's Bibliography 666156000000000515, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Calvo-Armengol, Antoni, 1999. "A note on three-player noncooperative bargaining with restricted pairwise meetings," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 65(1), pages 47-54, October.
- Ariel Rubinstein, 2010.
"Perfect Equilibrium in a Bargaining Model,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
252, David K. Levine.
- Bolton, Patrick & Whinston, Michael D, 1993. "Incomplete Contracts, Vertical Integration, and Supply Assurance," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(1), pages 121-48, January.
- Jean Tirole, 1999. "Incomplete Contracts: Where Do We Stand?," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(4), pages 741-782, July.
- Klein, Benjamin & Crawford, Robert G & Alchian, Armen A, 1978. "Vertical Integration, Appropriable Rents, and the Competitive Contracting Process," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(2), pages 297-326, October.
- Ken Binmore, 1994. "Bargaining theory without tears," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 18(3), pages 403-419, September.
- Klein, Benjamin, 1988. "Vertical Integration as Organizational Ownership: The Fisher Body-General Motors Relationship Revisited," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 4(1), pages 199-213, Spring.
- Mathewson, G Frank & Winter, Ralph A, 1987. "The Competitive Effects of Vertical Agreements: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(5), pages 1057-62, December.
- Chiu, Y Stephen, 1998. "Noncooperative Bargaining, Hostages, and Optimal Asset Ownership," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(4), pages 882-901, September.
- George Baker & Robert Gibbons & Kevin J. Murphy, 2002. "Relational Contracts And The Theory Of The Firm," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 117(1), pages 39-84, February.
- Bengt Holmstrom & John Roberts, 1998. "The Boundaries of the Firm Revisited," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(4), pages 73-94, Fall.
- David De Meza & Ben Lockwood, 1998. "Does Asset Ownership Always Motivate Managers? Outside Options And The Property Rights Theory Of The Firm," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 113(2), pages 361-386, May.
- Ilya Segal, 2003. "Collusion, Exclusion, and Inclusion in Random-Order Bargaining," Review of Economic Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 70(2), pages 439-460, 04.
- Marvel, Howard P, 1982. "Exclusive Dealing," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 25(1), pages 1-25, April.
- David de Meza & Marianno Selvaggi, 2003. "Please Hold me Up: Why Firms Grant Exclusive Dealing Contracts," The Centre for Market and Public Organisation 03/066, Department of Economics, University of Bristol, UK.
- McAfee, R Preston & Schwartz, Marius, 1994. "Opportunism in Multilateral Vertical Contracting: Nondiscrimination, Exclusivity, and Uniformity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(1), pages 210-30, March.
- Motta,Massimo, 2004. "Competition Policy," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521016919, October.
- Vasconcelos, Luis, 2006. "Contractual signalling, relationship-specific investment and exclusive agreements," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp495, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
- Fumagalli, Chiara & Motta, Massimo & Rønde, Thomas, 2009.
"Exclusive dealing: the interaction between foreclosure and investment promotion,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
7240, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Chiara Fumagalli & Massimo Motta & Thomas Rønde, 2009. "Exclusive Dealing: The Interaction between Foreclosure and Investment Promotion," Working Papers 2009.120, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
- Noriaki Matsushima & Ryusuke Shinohara, 2011. "What factors determine the number of trading partners?," ISER Discussion Paper 0808, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
- Klein, Joachim & Zenger, Hans, 2009. "Predatory Exclusive Dealing," Discussion Papers in Economics 10626, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
- Roberto Burguet & Ramon Caminal, 2010.
"Simultaneous Nash Bargaining with Consistent Beliefs,"
521, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
- Roberto Burguet & Ramon Caminal, 2010. "Simultaneous Nash Bargaining with Consistent Beliefs," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 854.10, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
- Matthew Ellman, 2006.
"Specificity Revisited: The Role of Cross-Investments,"
Journal of Law, Economics and Organization,
Oxford University Press, vol. 22(1), pages 234-257, April.
- Matthew Ellman, 2004. "Specificity revisited: The role of cross-investments," Economics Working Papers 799, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Jan 2005.
- Matthew Ellman, 2004. "Specificity Revisited: The Role of Cross-Investments," Working Papers 150, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
- Selvaggi, Marianao & Vasconcelos, Luis, 2006. "Star Wars: Exclusive Superstars and Collusive Outcomes," FEUNL Working Paper Series wp496, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Faculdade de Economia.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Jacqui Barton).
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.