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Price-setting behaviour, competition, and mark-up shocks in the New Keynesian model

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  • Hashmat Khan

Abstract

Recent research and policy discussions have noted that the potentially increased competition among firms since the 1990s may affect inflation and economic activity. This paper considers the implications of this structural change on short-run inflation dynamics, and for assessing shocks to inflation and output. The importance of firms' price-setting behaviour is highlighted in this context using a standard New Keynesian model with microfoundations. It is well known that both Rotemberg and Calvo price-setting assumptions imply the same reduced-form New Keynesian Phillips Curve (NKPC). Increased competition among firms, however, increases price flexibility in the former, and has either no effect or decreases price flexibility in the latter. The effects of mark-up shocks on inflation and output are small when firms' price-setting behaviour incorporates concerns about potential loss of market share. These effects are further dampened in an environment of more intense competition. Under the assumption of increased competition, both models lead to unambiguous predictions about the direction of change in the slope of the Phillips curve. Rolling estimates of the NKPC indicate that the slope has declined or flattened for several countries since the 1990s. This evidence is consistent with the prediction of the Calvo model.

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Paper provided by Bank of England in its series Bank of England working papers with number 240.

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Date of creation: Nov 2004
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Handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:240

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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Bianca De Paoli & Alasdair Scott & Olaf Weeken, 2006. "Asset pricing implications of a New Keynesian model," Computing in Economics and Finance 2006 358, Society for Computational Economics.
  2. Fagan, Gabriel & Messina, Julián, 2009. "Downward wage rigidity and optimal steady-state inflation," Working Paper Series 1048, European Central Bank.
  3. Abbritti, Mirko & Fahr, Stephan, 2013. "Downward wage rigidity and business cycle asymmetries," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(7), pages 871-886.
  4. Heiner Mikosch, 2012. "Sticky Prices, Competition and the Phillips Curve," KOF Working papers 11-294, KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich.
  5. Peacock, Chris & Baumann, Ursel, 2008. "Globalisation, import prices and inflation dynamics," Bank of England working papers 359, Bank of England.
  6. Zanetti, Francesco, 2009. "Effects of product and labor market regulation on macroeconomic outcomes," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 320-332, June.
  7. Hashmat Khan & Richhild Moessner, 2005. "Competitiveness, inflation, and monetary policy," Bank of England working papers 246, Bank of England.
  8. Rossi Lorenza & Guido Ascari, 2008. "Long-run Phillips Curve and Disinfation Dynamics: Calvo vs. Rotemberg Price Setting," DISCE - Quaderni dell'Istituto di Economia e Finanza ief0082, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Dipartimenti e Istituti di Scienze Economiche (DISCE).
  9. Yilmazkuday, Hakan, 2012. "Business cycles through international shocks: A structural investigation," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 115(3), pages 329-333.

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