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Desigualdad salarial en Colombia 1984-2005: cambios en la composición del mercado laboral y retornos a la educación post-secundaria

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  • Christian Manuel Posso Suárez

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Abstract

En el período 1984-2005 se registró un incremento substancial en la desigualdad salarial en especial a partir de 1995, momento en el cual también se dio un crecimiento significativo de la población asalariada con educación post-secundaria. A su vez esta desigualdad fue más importante dentro del grupo de los más educados. Este documento expone nuevas alternativas para el análisis de la desigualdad salarial en Colombia. Primero, se utiliza un método de descomposición para la desigualdad basado en una estimación condicional de la distribución de ingresos utilizando la regresión por percentiles; este método descompone los cambios en la distribución en tres factores: características, coeficientes y residuales. Los resultados muestran que el crecimiento de la desigualdad depende principalmente de los cambios en la distribución de las características de los asalariados para el periodo 1984-2005, resultado contrario a lo planteado por algunos trabajos previos donde se muestra que el crecimiento de la desigualdad depende fundamentalmente de los residuales. La técnica aquí presentada corrige algunas de las deficiencias del método original de descomposición de Juhn, Murphy y Pierce (JMP, 1993). Segundo, utilizando la regresión por percentiles se intenta mostrar que los premios a la educación post-secundaria tienen un rol principal en la explicación del crecimiento de la desigualdad dentro del grupo de los más educados, particularmente por una caída en el premio en la parte baja de la distribución (50/10) para el periodo 1995-2005, el cual puede estar asociado a un problema de calidad de la educación.

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Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 529.

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Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:529

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Keywords: Desigualdad de ingresos; Regresión por percentiles; Descomposición de ingresos; Retornos a la educación Classification JEL: C14; J31; I21.;

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  2. Luis Eduardo Arango & Carlos Esteban Posada & José Darío Uribe, . "Cambios en la Estructura de los Salarios Urbanos en Colombia (1984-2000)," Borradores de Economia 297, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
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Cited by:
  1. Ramirez, Francisco A., 2012. "Descomponiendo la Desigualdad Salarial en la República Dominicana: Análisis Empírico para el Periodo 2000-2011
    [Decomposing Wage Inequality in the Dominican Republic: Empirical Analysis for the
    ," MPRA Paper 51993, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  2. Carlos Medina & Christian Posso, . "Technical Change and Polarization of the Labor Market: Evidence for Brazil, Colombia and Mexico," Borradores de Economia 614, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.

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