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Parental time and child outcomes. Does gender matter?

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Author Info

  • Daniela Del Boca

    ()
    (University of Turin and Collegio Carlo ALberto)

  • Anna Laura Mancini

    ()
    (Bank of Italy)

Abstract

Using different econometric specifications this paper analyzes the relationship between the time parents spend with their children, child-related expenditure and the results obtained by them, with particular attention to gender differences. The authors use PSID-CDS data from 1997 to 2007 and consider separately boys’ and girls’ test scores in reading and writing and math and logical reasoning. The amount of time mothers spend with children is always greater than fathers but changes over the life cycle of the children. In fact, the time mothers spend with children decreases as the child grows up and is greater with daughters, while the reverse is true of fathers. The estimates show that the impact of mothers’ and fathers’ time with children varies considerably with respect to the two cognitive tests, and is considerably greater in the case of highly-educated parents.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area in its series Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) with number 187.

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Date of creation: Jun 2013
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Handle: RePEc:bdi:opques:qef_187_13

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Related research

Keywords: time-use; cognitive ability; child development;

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References

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  1. Jasmin Kantarevic & Stéphane Mechoulan, 2006. "Birth Order, Educational Attainment, and Earnings: An Investigation Using the PSID," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 41(4).
  2. Del Boca, Daniela & Flinn, Christopher & Wiswall, Matthew, 2010. "Household Choices and Child Development," IZA Discussion Papers 5155, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. James Heckman & Pedro Carneiro, 2003. "Human Capital Policy," NBER Working Papers 9495, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. David Card & Alan B. Krueger, 1996. "Labor Market Effects of School Quality: Theory and Evidence," NBER Working Papers 5450, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Keane, Michael P & Wolpin, Kenneth I, 2001. "The Effect of Parental Transfers and Borrowing Constraints on Educational Attainment," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 42(4), pages 1051-1103, November.
  6. Shelly Lundberg, 2005. "Sons, Daughters, and Parental Behaviour," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, Oxford University Press, vol. 21(3), pages 340-356, Autumn.
  7. Joseph Price, 2008. "Parent-Child Quality Time: Does Birth Order Matter?," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(1).
  8. Michael P. Murray, 2006. "Avoiding Invalid Instruments and Coping with Weak Instruments," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, American Economic Association, vol. 20(4), pages 111-132, Fall.
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  10. Petra E. Todd & Kenneth I. Wolpin, 2003. "On The Specification and Estimation of The Production Function for Cognitive Achievement," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, Royal Economic Society, vol. 113(485), pages F3-F33, February.
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  13. Christopher J. Ruhm, 2004. "Parental Employment and Child Cognitive Development," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 39(1).
  14. John Sandberg & Sandra Hofferth, 2001. "Changes in children’s time with parents: United States, 1981–1997," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 38(3), pages 423-436, August.
  15. Anna Laura Mancini & Silvia Pasqua, 2009. "Asymmetries and Interdependencies in Time use between Italian Spouses," CHILD Working Papers, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY wp12_09, CHILD - Centre for Household, Income, Labour and Demographic economics - ITALY.
  16. Anne H. Gauthier & Timothy M. Smeeding & Frank F. Furstenberg, 2004. "Are Parents Investing Less Time in Children? Trends in Selected Industrialized Countries," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., The Population Council, Inc., vol. 30(4), pages 647-672.
  17. Flavio Cunha & James J. Heckman, 2008. "Formulating, Identifying and Estimating the Technology of Cognitive and Noncognitive Skill Formation," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 43(4).
  18. Jane Waldfogel & Wen-Jui Han & Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, 2002. "The effects of early maternal employment on child cognitive development," Demography, Springer, Springer, vol. 39(2), pages 369-392, May.
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