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The Ex-Ante Versus Ex-Post Effect of Public Guarantees

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  • H. Evren Damar
  • Reint Gropp
  • Adi Mordel

Abstract

In October 2006, Dominion Bond Rating Service (DBRS) introduced new ratings for banks that account for the potential of government support. The rating changes are not a reflection of any changes in the respective banks’ credit fundamentals. We use this natural experiment to evaluate the consequences of bail out expectations for bank behavior using a difference in differences approach. The results suggest a striking difference between the effects of bail out probabilities during calm times (“ex ante”) versus during crisis times (“ex post”). During calm times, higher bail-out probabilities result in higher risk taking, consistent with the moral hazard view and much of the empirical literature. However, in crisis times, we find that banks with higher bail out probabilities tend to increase their risk taking less compared to banks that were ex ante unlikely to be bailed-out. Charter values are one part of the explanation: Supported banks may have a funding advantage relative to non-supported banks during the crisis. However, we cannot rule out that other factors also may be playing a role, including tighter supervision of supported banks in crisis times.

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Bibliographic Info

Paper provided by Bank of Canada in its series Working Papers with number 12-22.

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Length: 23 pages
Date of creation: 2012
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:bca:bocawp:12-22

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Keywords: Financial Institutions; Financial stability; Financial system regulation and policies;

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References

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  1. Sironi, Andrea, 2003. " Testing for Market Discipline in the European Banking Industry: Evidence from Subordinated Debt Issues," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(3), pages 443-72, June.
  2. Barth, James R. & Caprio, Gerard Jr. & Levine, Ross, 2004. "Bank regulation and supervision: what works best?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 205-248, April.
  3. Beck, Thorsten & Demirguc-Kunt, Asli & Levine, Ross, 2006. "Bank concentration, competition, and crises: First results," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 1581-1603, May.
  4. Gropp, Reint & Gruendl, Christian & Guettler, Andre, 2010. "The impact of public guarantees on bank risk taking: evidence from a natural experiment," Working Paper Series 1272, European Central Bank.
  5. John Krainer & Jose A. Lopez, 2009. "Do supervisory rating standards change over time?," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, pages 13-24.
  6. Hakenes, Hendrik & Schnabel, Isabel, 2004. "Banks without Parachutes -- Competitive Effects of Government Bail-out Policies," Sonderforschungsbereich 504 Publications 04-53, Sonderforschungsbereich 504, Universität Mannheim & Sonderforschungsbereich 504, University of Mannheim.
  7. Doron Kliger & Oded Sarig, 2000. "The Information Value of Bond Ratings," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(6), pages 2879-2902, December.
  8. Reint Gropp & Hendrik Hakenes & Isabel Schnabel, 2010. "Competition, Risk-Shifting,and Public Bail-out Policies," Working Paper Series of the Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods 2010_05, Max Planck Institute for Research on Collective Goods.
  9. Gropp, Reint & Vesala, Jukka & Vulpes, Giuseppe, 2006. "Equity and Bond Market Signals as Leading Indicators of Bank Fragility," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 38(2), pages 399-428, March.
  10. Boyd, John H. & Runkle, David E., 1993. "Size and performance of banking firms : Testing the predictions of theory," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 47-67, February.
  11. Reint Gropp & Jukka Vesala, 2002. "Deposit insurance, moral hazard, and market monitoring," Proceedings 823, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  12. Cordella, Tito & Yeyati, Eduardo Levy, 2003. "Bank bailouts: moral hazard vs. value effect," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 300-330, October.
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Cited by:
  1. Luis Brandao-Marques & Ricardo Correa & Horacio Sapriza, 2013. "International evidence on government support and risk taking in the banking sector," International Finance Discussion Papers 1086, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).

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