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Évaluation et régulation de l’effet de serre d’origine agricole

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  • De Cara, Stéphane

    (MODEM, Université de Paris 10-Nanterre)

  • Jayet, Pierre-Alain

    (INRA, Département d’économie, Centre de Grignon)

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to study the modification of the greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere due to agricultural activities, and the impact of the implementation of regulation policy tools. From a supply-side model of the French agriculture, we estimate the contribution of cultivation and animal husbandry in terms of methane and nitrous oxide, taking also into account carbon storage in soils and plants. We then compare the effects of different tax schemes on agricultural supply in the short and mid run. We first focus on first best schemes. In this case, the taxes and subsidies are directly based on net emission levels that are assumed to be perfectly observed by the environmental agency. In this framework, we particularly discuss the opportunity of an incentive scheme proposed to producers in order to reafforest on set-aside land. Then we turn to the case of second best regulation tools based on the taxation of factors which are observable at lower cost, that is to say taxes on market feed and livestock. The incentive to reafforestation appears to be an effective means to regulate agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. It is much more socially acceptable than second best policy tools including taxes on activities derived from livestock. Nous examinons la contribution du secteur agricole aux émissions de gaz à effet de serre ainsi que l’impact de mesures de régulation. À partir d’un modèle économique de l’offre agricole française à fort contenu technique, nous mesurons la contribution des activités animales et végétales à l’accumulation de méthane et de protoxyde d’azote et au stockage du carbone dans le sol et la partie aérienne des plantes. Nous donnons ensuite un éclairage prospectif sur la réaction à court et moyen terme de l’offre agricole à l’application de différents schémas de taxation. Dans un premier temps, nous donnons une appréciation de l’impact d’un schéma de premier rang et discutons de l’intérêt d’une incitation au reboisement des terres en jachère. Basées sur les données techniques disponibles, les taxes et primes reposent directement sur les niveaux d’émissions que l’agence environnementale est supposée mesurer parfaitement. Dans une optique de second rang fondée sur la taxation de facteurs observables à moindre coût, nous examinons ensuite l’effet : (i) d’une taxe sur l’alimentation achetée et (ii) d’une taxe sur l’animal. Le principal résultat est que l’incitation au reboisement constitue un instrument efficace de régulation de l’effet de serre d’origine agricole, alors que les schémas de taxe de second rang sur l’activité de production animale apparaissent relativement inefficaces.

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Article provided by Société Canadienne de Science Economique in its journal L'Actualité économique.

Volume (Year): 75 (1999)
Issue (Month): 4 (décembre)
Pages: 597-623

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Handle: RePEc:ris:actuec:v:75:y:1999:i:4:p:597-623

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  1. Douglas M. Larson & Gloria E. Helfand & Brett W. House, 1996. "Second-Best Tax Policies to Reduce Nonpoint Source Pollution," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(4), pages 1108-1117.
  2. Nordhaus, William D., 1993. "Rolling the 'DICE': an optimal transition path for controlling greenhouse gases," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 27-50, March.
  3. Tietenberg, T H, 1990. "Economic Instruments for Environmental Regulation," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 6(1), pages 17-33, Spring.
  4. Peter Hoeller & Andrew Dean & Masahiro Hayafuji, 1992. "New Issues, New Results: The OECD's Second Survey of the Macroeconomic Costs of Reducing CO2 Emissions," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 123, OECD Publishing.
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Cited by:
  1. Pierre-Alain Jayet & Stéphane De Cara, 2000. "Régulation de l'effet de serre d'origine agricole : puits de carbone et instruments de second rang," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 143(2), pages 37-46.

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