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Progrès technique et changements organisationnels : leur impact sur l'emploi et les qualifications

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  • Nathalie Greenan

Abstract

[fre] Progrès technique et changements organisationnels : leur impact sur l'emploi et les qualifications . Entre 1 988 et 1 993, la modernisation des entreprises industrielles françaises a eu un impact différent sur l'emploi et les qualifications selon le type de changements opérés. L'introduction de nouvelles technologies a un effet positif sur la croissance de l'emploi. Il semble que les firmes qui recourent à l'innovation technologique bénéficient d'un avantage compétitif lié à la qualité et à la différenciation de leurs produits ainsi qu'à leurs délais de livraison. . Les changements organisationnels n'ont pas d'impact sur l'évolution des effectifs mais ils modifient l'évolution de la structure des emplois, en favorisant la main-d'oeuvre qualifiée. Selon les modèles, les opérateurs ou les spécialistes gagnent des responsabilités sans que leurs effectifs augmentent. Seuls les cadres semblent favorisés sur le plan de l'emploi, même lorsque diminue le nombre de niveaux hiérarchiques. [ger] Technischer Fortschritt und organisatorische Ànderungen : ihre Auswirkungen auf die Beschàftigung und die Qualifikationen . Zwischen 1988 und 1993 hatte die Modemisierung der franzôsischen Industrieunternehmen je nach Art der erfolgten Ànderungen eine unterschiedliche Auswirkung auf die Beschàftigung und die Qualifikationen. Die Einfùhrung neuer Technologien wirkt sich auf das Beschâftigungswachstum positiv aus. Es hat den Anschein, da(3 die Unternehmen, die technologische Innovationen vornehmen, ùber einen Wettbewerbsvorteil verfùgen, der auf die Qualitàt und die Differenzierung ihrer Erzeugnisse sowie auf ihre kùrzeren Lieferfristen zurùckzufûhren ist. . Die organisatorischen Ànderungen haben zwar auf die Entwicklung der Beschàftigtenzahl keine Auswirkungen; sie àndern jedoch die Entwicklung der Beschàftigungs- struktur, da verstàrkt qualifizierte Arbeitskràfte benôtigt werden. Je nach den Modellen erhalten die Maschinen- bediener oder die Fachkràfte eine grôBere Verantwortung, ohne da3 die Beschàftigtenzahl zunimmt. Lediglich die Fùhrungskrâfte scheinen hinsichtlich der Beschàftigung Vorteile zu haben, selbst wenn die Anzahl hierarchischer Ebenen abnimmt. [spa] Progreso técnico y cambios organizacionales su impacto en el empleo y las cualificaciones . Entre 1988 y 1993, la modernizaciôn de las empresas industriales francesas tuvo un impacto diferente en el empleo y las cualificaciones segûn el tipo de cambio Ilevado a cabo. La introducciôn de nuevas tecnologfas tuvo una consecuencia positiva sobre el crecimiento del empleo. Parece que las firmas que recurren a la innovacion tecnolôgica se benefician de una ventaja competitiva ligada a la calidad y a la diferenciaciôn de sus productos asi como a sus plazos de entrega. . Los cambios organizacionales no tuvieron impacto en la evoluciôn de las plantillas pero modificaron la evoluciôn de la estructura de los empleos, al favorecer a la mano de obra cualificada. Segûn los modelos, los operadores o los especialistas van ganando responsabilidades sin que sus plantillas aumenten. Solo los ejecutivos parecen aventajados a nivel de empleo, incluso cuando va disminuyendo la cantidad de nivelés jerârquicos. [eng] Technological Progress and Organizational Changes: Their Effect on Employment and Skills . From 1 988 to 1 993, the modernization of French industrial firms affected employment and skills differently depending on the type of changes made. The introduction of new technologies has a positive effect on growth in employment. The firms choosing technological innovation would appear to have a competitive advantage related to their product quality and differentiation as well as their delivery times. . Organizational changes have no effect on the number of employees, but they do change the job structure trend by favouring skilled labour. The models show that the operators and specialists take on more responsibility without there being an increase in the number of employees. Only executives seem to be favoured in terms of employment, even when the hierarchical structure is flattened to some extent.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Économie et Statistique.

Volume (Year): 298 (1996)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 35-44

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Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_1996_num_298_1_6153

Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.1996.6153
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Web page: http://www.persee.fr/web/revues/home/prescript/revue/estat

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Cited by:
  1. Even Caroli & John Van Reenen, 1999. "Organization, skill and technology: evidence from a panel of British and French establishments," IFS Working Papers W99/23, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  2. Mohammad Movahedi & Olivier Gaussens, 2013. "Les effets de l’exportation sur l’innovation et la productivité : Analyse empirique sur un échantillon de PMI," Economics Working Paper Archive (University of Rennes 1 & University of Caen) 201307, Center for Research in Economics and Management (CREM), University of Rennes 1, University of Caen and CNRS.
  3. Nathalie Greenan & Emmanuelle Walkowiak, 2005. "Informatique, organisation du travail et intéractions sociales," Econometrics 0505008, EconWPA.
  4. Piva, Mariacristina & Santarelli, Enrico & Vivarelli, Marco, 2003. "The Skill Bias Effect of Technological and Organisational Change: Evidence and Policy Implications," IZA Discussion Papers 934, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Philippe, ASKENAZY & Eva, MORENO-GALBIS, 2004. "The impact of technological and organizatioanl changes on labor flows. Evidence on French establishments," Discussion Papers (IRES - Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales) 2004031, Université catholique de Louvain, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES).
  6. Philippe Askenazy & Caroline Vincent Marcus, 2002. "New Organizational Practices and Working Conditions . Evidence from France in the 1990's," Recherches économiques de Louvain, De Boeck Université, vol. 68(1), pages 91-110.
  7. Ben Youssef, Adel & Dahmani, Mounir & Omrani, Nessrine, 2012. "Students' e-skills, organizational change and diversity of learning processs: Evidence from French universities in 2010," ZEW Discussion Papers 12-031, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  8. Nathalie Greenan & Yannick L'Horty, 2002. "Le paradoxe de la productivité," Post-Print halshs-00918037, HAL.
  9. Philippe Zamora, 2006. "Changements organisationnels, technologiques et recours à la formation dans les entreprises industrielles," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 57(6), pages 1235-1257.
  10. Movahedi, Mohammad & Gaussens, Olivier, 2011. "Innovation, productivity, and export: Evidence from SMEs in Lower Normandy, France," MPRA Paper 40443, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 07 Jun 2012.
  11. Emmanuelle Walkowiak, 2006. "Renouvellement de la main-d'œuvre et modernisation des entreprises," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 57(6), pages 1205-1233.

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