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Money Supply, Deficit, and Inflation in Pakistan

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  • Mohammad Aslam Chaudhary

    (Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad.)

  • Naved Ahmad

    (University of Karachi.)

Abstract

Inflation is a burning issue in Pakistan. It is generally felt that for several years Pakistan has had a double-digit inflation. The public sector has used a mix of policies to control inflation, and it is also held responsible for its creation. The consumer price index (CPI) increased over 11 percent in 1981-82, and over 12 percent in 1990-91. Similarly, sensitive price index (SPI) increased over 15 percent in 1981-82, and over 12 percent in 1990-91. The GDP deflator was also double-digit for several years. Inflation not only affects sectoral allocation and distribution of income but also generates poverty. A prescription might not be appropriate until the roots of the disease are carefully investigated, which is the very reason for carrying out this study. Studies by Hossain (1990) several others concluded that inflation is a monetary phenomenon in Pakistan, while Bilquees (1988) showed that structural factors explained the inflationary process in Pakistan. It is widely disagreed whether money supply is exogenous or endogenous. Vogel (1974), criticising the monetarist approach, argued that further research is needed on the determination of money supply. Given this background, this study is intended to identify the variables leading to inflation; the nature of money supply, endogenous or exogenous, is also analysed. Section 2 of the study provides a brief review of the literature. A model is developed to study the relationship among fiscal deficit, money supply, and inflation. Section 3 contains a description of the empirical results. Section 4 provides the conclusion and policy implications.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.

Volume (Year): 34 (1995)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
Pages: 945-956

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Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:34:y:1995:i:4:p:945-956

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Cited by:
  1. Kiran Ijaz & Muhammad Zakaria & Bashir A. Fida, 2014. "Terms-of-Trade Volatility and Inflation in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 19(1), pages 111-132, Jan-June.
  2. Hemantha K.J. Ekanayake, 2012. "The Link Between Fiscal Deficit and Inflation: Do public sector wages matter?," ASARC Working Papers 2012-14, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
  3. Jalil, Abdul & Tariq, Rabbia & Bibi, Nazia, 2014. "Fiscal deficit and inflation: New evidences from Pakistan using a bounds testing approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 120-126.
  4. Aviral Kumar Tiwari & A. P. Tiwari, 2011. "Fiscal Deficit and Inflation: An empirical analysis for India," Romanian Economic Journal, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, Department of International Business and Economics from the Academy of Economic Studies Bucharest, vol. 14(42), pages 131-158, December.
  5. Tahir Mukhtar, 2010. "Does Trade Openness Reduce Inflation? Empirical Evidence from Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 15(2), pages 35-50, Jul-Dec.
  6. Saira Tufail & Sadia Batool, 2013. "An Analysis of the Relationship between Inflation and Gold Prices: Evidence from Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 18(2), pages 1-35, July-Dec.
  7. Kreiter, Zebulun & Paul, Tapas Kumar, 2010. "Deficit Financing and Inflation in Bangladesh: A Vector Autoregressive Analysis," MPRA Paper 45981, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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