Parental Characteristics, Supply of Schools, and Child School-enrolment in Pakistan
AbstractIn recent years, due to a virtual unanimity about the critical role of human capital in economic development, increased efforts are being made in the developing countries to eradicate illiteracy. Despite a significant increase over time in the number of educational institutions and the government's expenditure on education in Pakistan, the performance of the education sector in terms of output has been at best meagre. This non-correspondence between the growth in the educational institutions and the resultant output implies that failure to enlist the participation of the population in education can hardly be attributed exclusively to an insufficiency of the schools. To the extent that child schooling reflects parental capacity to invest in human capital formation, there is a need to reckon with factors bearing parental decision regarding child schooling. This paper investigates family's decision regarding child schooling through an assessment of the determinants of child school-enrolment, using choice theoretic framework. The regression results are indicative of the influence of household status, both economic and social, on the propensity to invest in child schooling. A positive association between the household income, parental education, and tenurial status as land-owner bear out the importance of these factors in shaping the household's decision regarding investment in human capital formation. The study also finds traces of the quantity-quality trade-off in family's preferences regarding the number of children, and it is found to be male-specific. The most disturbing finding of the study appears to be the predominance of the influence originating from parental education. It is this inter-generational transfer of human capital which needs more attention as it also implies that illiteracy, and hence poverty, of the parents gets transmitted to the off-spring. The analysis also brings out the fact that the labour market hiring practices serve as an important feedback to the household's human capital formation behaviour.
Download InfoIf you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
Bibliographic InfoArticle provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.
Volume (Year): 30 (1991)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Judith Blake, 1981. "Family size and the quality of children," Demography, Springer, vol. 18(4), pages 421-442, November.
- Becker, Gary S & Tomes, Nigel, 1976.
"Child Endowments and the Quantity and Quality of Children,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(4), pages S143-62, August.
- Gary S. Becker & Nigel Tomes, 1976. "Child Endowments, and the Quantity and Quality of Children," NBER Working Papers 0123, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R & Wolpin, Kenneth I, 1980. "Testing the Quantity-Quality Fertility Model: The Use of Twins as a Natural Experiment," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(1), pages 227-40, January.
- Amemiya, Takeshi, 1981. "Qualitative Response Models: A Survey," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 19(4), pages 1483-1536, December.
- Behrman, Jere R & Wolfe, Barbara L, 1984. "A More General Approach to Fertility Determination in a Developing Country: The Importance of Biological Supply Considerations, Endogenous Tastes and Unperceived Jointness," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 51(23), pages 319-39, August.
- Minhaj Ul Haque & Munawar Sultana, 2003. "Coming of Age in Contemporary Pakistan: Influences of Gender and Poverty," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(4), pages 643-668.
- Zeba A. Sathar & Cynthia B. Lloyd, 1994. "Who Gets Primary Schooling in Pakistan: Inequalities among and within Families," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 33(2), pages 103-134.
- G. M. Arif & Najam US Saqib & G. M. Zahid, 1999. "Poverty, Gender, and Primary School Enrolment in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 38(4), pages 979-992.
- Sajid Amin Javed & Mohammad Irfan, 2012. "Intergenerational Mobility: Evidence from Pakistan Panel Household Survey," Poverty and Social Dynamics Paper Series 2012:05, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
- Naushin Mahmood, 2004. "Transition in Primary and Secondary Schooling in Pakistan: Gender and Age Cohort Analysis," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 43(1), pages 53-71.
- Imran Ashraf Toor & Rizwana Parveen, 2004. "Factors Influencing Girls’ Primary Enrolment in Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 9(2), pages 141-157, Jul-Dec.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Khurram Iqbal).
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.