Advanced Search
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Who hedges more when leverage is endogenous? A testable theory of corporate risk management under general distributional conditions

Contents:

Author Info

  • Lutz Hahnenstein

    ()

  • Klaus Röder
Registered author(s):

    Abstract

    This paper develops a theory of a firm’s hedging decision with endogenous leverage. In contrast to previous models in the literature, our framework is based on less restrictive distributional assumptions and allows a closed-form analytical solution to the joint optimization problem. Using anecdotal evidence of greater benefits of risk management for firms selling “credence goods” or products that involve long-term relationships, we prove that those optimally leveraged firms, which face more convex indirect bankruptcy cost functions, will choose higher hedge ratios. Moreover, we suggest a new approach to test this relationship empirically. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

    Download Info

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s11156-007-0017-z
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Springer in its journal Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting.

    Volume (Year): 28 (2007)
    Issue (Month): 4 (May)
    Pages: 353-391

    as in new window
    Handle: RePEc:kap:rqfnac:v:28:y:2007:i:4:p:353-391

    Contact details of provider:
    Web page: http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=102990

    Related research

    Keywords: Corporate hedging; Risk management; Leverage; Capital structure; Bankruptcy; Financial distress; G32; G39;

    Find related papers by JEL classification:

    References

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
    as in new window
    1. S. Waite Rawls & Charles W. Smithson, 1990. "Strategic Risk Management," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 2(4), pages 6-18.
    2. Castanias, Richard, 1983. " Bankruptcy Risk and Optimal Capital Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(5), pages 1617-35, December.
    3. David Shaffer & Andrea DeMaskey, 2005. "Currency Hedging Using the Mean-Gini Framework," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 25(2), pages 125-137, September.
    4. Kenneth A. Froot & David S. Scharfstein & Jeremy C. Stein, 1992. "Risk Management: Coordinating Corporate Investment and Financing Policies," NBER Working Papers 4084, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. McElroy, Marjorie B & Burmeister, Edwin, 1988. "Arbitrage Pricing Theory as a Restricted Nonlinear Multivariate Regression Model: Iterated Nonlinear Seemingly Unrelated Regression Estimates," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 6(1), pages 29-42, January.
    6. Mian, Shehzad L., 1996. "Evidence on Corporate Hedging Policy," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 31(03), pages 419-439, September.
    7. Merton, Robert C., 1977. "On the pricing of contingent claims and the Modigliani-Miller theorem," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 241-249, November.
    8. Bradley, Michael & Jarrell, Gregg A & Kim, E Han, 1984. " On the Existence of an Optimal Capital Structure: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 857-78, July.
    9. Geczy, Christopher & Minton, Bernadette A & Schrand, Catherine, 1997. " Why Firms Use Currency Derivatives," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(4), pages 1323-54, September.
    10. Sandmo, Agnar, 1971. "On the Theory of the Competitive Firm under Price Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 61(1), pages 65-73, March.
    11. Chen, Nai-Fu & Roll, Richard & Ross, Stephen A, 1986. "Economic Forces and the Stock Market," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(3), pages 383-403, July.
    12. Smith, Clifford W. & Stulz, René M., 1985. "The Determinants of Firms' Hedging Policies," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(04), pages 391-405, December.
    13. Hayne E. Leland, 1998. "Agency Costs, Risk Management, and Capital Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(4), pages 1213-1243, 08.
    14. Chen, G M & Merville, L J, 1999. " An Analysis of the Underreported Magnitude of the Total Indirect Costs of Financial Distress," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 13(3), pages 277-93, November.
    15. Saman Majd & Stewart C. Myers, 1987. "Tax Asymmetries and Corporate Income Tax Reform," NBER Chapters, in: Taxes and Capital Formation, pages 93-96 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Turnbull, Stuart M, 1979. "Debt Capacity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 34(4), pages 931-40, September.
    17. Kale, Jayant R & Noe, Thomas H & Ramirez, Gabriel G, 1991. " The Effect of Business Risk on Corporate Capital Structure: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(5), pages 1693-715, December.
    18. Merton, Robert C, 1974. "On the Pricing of Corporate Debt: The Risk Structure of Interest Rates," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 29(2), pages 449-70, May.
    19. Bessembinder, Hendrik, 1991. "Forward Contracts and Firm Value: Investment Incentive and Contracting Effects," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 26(04), pages 519-532, December.
    20. Glosten, L. R. & Jagannathan, R., 1994. "A contingent claim approach to performance evaluation," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 133-160, January.
    21. Altman, Edward I, 1984. " A Further Empirical Investigation of the Bankruptcy Cost Question," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(4), pages 1067-89, September.
    22. John R. Graham & Daniel A. Rogers, 2002. "Do Firms Hedge in Response to Tax Incentives?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(2), pages 815-839, 04.
    23. John R. Graham & Clifford W. Smith, 1999. "Tax Incentives to Hedge," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(6), pages 2241-2262, December.
    24. Hayne E. Leland., 1994. "Corporate Debt Value, Bond Covenants, and Optimal Capital Structure," Research Program in Finance Working Papers RPF-233, University of California at Berkeley.
    25. Holthausen, Duncan M, 1979. "Hedging and the Competitive Firm under Price Uncertainty," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(5), pages 989-95, December.
    26. Dionne, Georges & Garand, Martin, 2003. "Risk management determinants affecting firms' values in the gold mining industry: new empirical results," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 43-52, April.
    27. Harrison, J. Michael & Kreps, David M., 1979. "Martingales and arbitrage in multiperiod securities markets," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 381-408, June.
    28. Benninga, Simon Z. & Oosterhof, Casper M., 2004. "Hedging with forwards and puts in complete and incomplete markets," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 1-17, January.
    29. Spano, Marcello, 2004. "Determinants of hedging and its effects on investment and debt," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 175-197, January.
    30. Breeden, Douglas T & Litzenberger, Robert H, 1978. "Prices of State-contingent Claims Implicit in Option Prices," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 51(4), pages 621-51, October.
    31. Gregory W. Brown & Klaus Bjerre Toft, 2002. "How Firms Should Hedge," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(4), pages 1283-1324.
    32. Ross, Stephen A, 1985. " Debt and Taxes and Uncertainty," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(3), pages 637-57, July.
    33. Fok, Robert C. W. & Carroll, Carolyn & Chiou, Ming C., 1997. "Determinants of corporate hedging and derivatives: A revisit," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 49(6), pages 569-585.
    34. Chen, Ren-Raw & Huang, Jing-Zhi, 2002. " A Note on Forward Price and Forward Measure," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 261-72, November.
    35. Hahnenstein, Lutz & Roder, Klaus, 2003. "The minimum variance hedge and the bankruptcy risk of the firm," Review of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 315-326.
    36. Adam, Tim Rene, 2002. "Risk management and the credit risk premium," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 26(2-3), pages 243-269, March.
    37. Hull, John & Predescu, Mirela & White, Alan, 2004. "The relationship between credit default swap spreads, bond yields, and credit rating announcements," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(11), pages 2789-2811, November.
    38. Nance, Deana R & Smith, Clifford W, Jr & Smithson, Charles W, 1993. " On the Determinants of Corporate Hedging," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 48(1), pages 267-84, March.
    39. Mark J Manning, 2004. "Exploring the relationship between credit spreads and default probabilities," Bank of England working papers 225, Bank of England.
    40. Jagannathan, Ravi, 1984. "Call options and the risk of underlying securities," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 425-434, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as in new window

    Cited by:
    1. Frestad, Dennis, 2010. "Corporate hedging under a resource rent tax regime," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 458-468, March.

    Lists

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:rqfnac:v:28:y:2007:i:4:p:353-391. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Guenther Eichhorn) or (Christopher F. Baum).

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.