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How Firms Should Hedge

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  • Gregory W. Brown
  • Klaus Bjerre Toft
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    Abstract

    Substantial academic research explains why firms should hedge, but little work has addressed how firms should hedge. We assume that firms can experience costly states of nature and derive optimal hedging strategies using vanilla derivatives (e.g., forwards and options) and custom "exotic" derivative contracts for a value-maximizing firm facing both hedgable (price) and unhedgable (quantity) risks. Customized exotic derivatives are typically better than vanilla contracts when correlations between prices and quantities are large in magnitude and when quantity risks are substantially greater than price risks. Finally, we discuss how our model may be applied in practice. Copyright 2002, Oxford University Press.

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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by Society for Financial Studies in its journal The Review of Financial Studies.

    Volume (Year): 15 (2002)
    Issue (Month): 4 ()
    Pages: 1283-1324

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    Handle: RePEc:oup:rfinst:v:15:y:2002:i:4:p:1283-1324

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    Cited by:
    1. Câmara, António & Popova, Ivilina & Simkins, Betty, 2012. "A comparative study of the probability of default for global financial firms," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 717-732.
    2. Söhnke M. Bartram, 2006. "The use of options in corporate risk management," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 32(2), pages 160-181.
    3. Mohamed Mnasri & Georges Dionne & Jean-Pierre Gueyie, 2013. "The Maturity Structure of Corporate Hedging: the Case of the U.S. Oil and Gas Industry," Cahiers de recherche 1337, CIRPEE.
    4. Gurenko, Eugene & Mahul, Olivier, 2003. "Combining insurance, contingent debt, and self-retention in an optimal corporate risk financing strategy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3167, The World Bank.
    5. Frestad, Dennis, 2010. "Convex costs and the hedging paradox," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 236-242, April.
    6. Lutz Hahnenstein & Klaus Röder, 2007. "Who hedges more when leverage is endogenous? A testable theory of corporate risk management under general distributional conditions," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 28(4), pages 353-391, May.
    7. Adam-Müller, Axel F.A. & Nolte, Ingmar, 2011. "Cross hedging under multiplicative basis risk," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(11), pages 2956-2964, November.
    8. Fehle, Frank & Tsyplakov, Sergey, 2005. "Dynamic risk management: Theory and evidence," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 3-47, October.
    9. Lin, Chen-Miao & Phillips, Richard D. & Smith, Stephen D., 2008. "Hedging, financing, and investment decisions: Theory and empirical tests," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1566-1582, August.
    10. Fleten, Stein-Erik & Bråthen, Espen & Nissen-Meyer, Sigurd-Erik, 2010. "Evaluation of static hedging strategies for hydropower producers in the Nordic market," MPRA Paper 27133, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Cornaggia, Jess, 2013. "Does risk management matter? Evidence from the U.S. agricultural industry," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(2), pages 419-440.
    12. Severin Borenstein, 2007. "Customer Risk from Real-Time Retail Electricity Pricing: Bill Volatility and Hedgability," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 111-130.
    13. Lalancette, Simon & Leclerc, Frank & Turcotte, David, 2004. "Selective hedging with market views and risk limits: the case of Hydro-Quebec," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 44(5), pages 710-726, December.
    14. Fink, Jason D. & Fink, Kristin E. & Russell, Allison, 2010. "When and how do tropical storms affect markets? The case of refined petroleum," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1283-1290, November.
    15. Frestad, Dennis, 2010. "Corporate hedging under a resource rent tax regime," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 458-468, March.
    16. Kuersten, Wolfgang & Linde, Rainer, 2011. "Corporate hedging versus risk-shifting in financially constrained firms: The time-horizon matters!," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 502-525, June.
    17. Leif Beisland & Dennis Frestad, 2013. "How fair-value accounting can influence firm hedging," Review of Derivatives Research, Springer, vol. 16(2), pages 193-217, July.
    18. Chiara Oldani, 2005. "An Overview of the Literature about Derivatives," Macroeconomics 0504004, EconWPA.
    19. Adam, Tim, 2009. "Capital expenditures, financial constraints, and the use of options," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(2), pages 238-251, May.

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