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The costs of motherhood: an analysis using matching estimators

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Author Info

  • Lars Skipper

    (Institute for Local Government Studies, Copenhagen, Denmark)

  • Marianne Simonsen

    (Department of Economics, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark)

Abstract

We estimate the effect of motherhood on wages using matching. We distinguish between net and direct effects. The net effect includes the total wage costs, whereas the direct represents the causal effect. Since covariates are likely affected by motherhood, the latter effect is not immediately uncovered. We therefore implement two strategies: first, we confine the analysis to consider sector-specific treatment effects; second, we impose additive separability on the outcome equation. We find negative net effects that vary little with sector. The direct effect is small and negative in the public sector and insignificant in the private sector. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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Bibliographic Info

Article provided by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. in its journal Journal of Applied Econometrics.

Volume (Year): 21 (2006)
Issue (Month): 7 ()
Pages: 919-934

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Handle: RePEc:jae:japmet:v:21:y:2006:i:7:p:919-934

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References

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  1. Ermisch, John & Francesconi, Marco, 2001. "Family Matters: Impacts of Family Background on Educational Attainments," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 68(270), pages 137-56, May.
  2. Marianne Simonsen & Lars Skipper, 2004. "Identifying Direct and Indirect Effects. Estimating th Costs of Motherhood Using Matching Estimators," Discussion Papers 03-023, Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.
  3. Lechner, Michael, 1999. "Identification and Estimation of Causal Effects of Multiple Treatments Under the Conditional Independence Assumption," IZA Discussion Papers 91, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. Black, Dan A. & Smith, J.A.Jeffrey A., 2004. "How robust is the evidence on the effects of college quality? Evidence from matching," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 121(1-2), pages 99-124.
  5. Butcher, Kristin F & Case, Anne, 1994. "The Effect of Sibling Sex Composition on Women's Education and Earnings," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 109(3), pages 531-63, August.
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Citations

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Cited by:
  1. Matthias Krapf & Heinrich W. Ursprung & Christian Zimmermann, 2014. "Parenthood and Productivity of Highly Skilled Labor: Evidence from the Groves of Academe," Working Paper Series 01_14, The Rimini Centre for Economic Analysis.
  2. Fitzenberger, Bernd & Sommerfeld, Katrin & Steffes, Susanne, 2013. "Causal Effects on Employment after First Birth: A Dynamic Treatment Approach," IZA Discussion Papers 7438, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  3. Guyonne Kalb & Trinh Le & Felix Leung, 2014. "Outcomes for Teenage Mothers in the First Years after Birth," Melbourne Institute Working Paper Series wp2014n06, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, The University of Melbourne.
  4. Buligescu Bianca & Crombrugghe Denis de & Mentesoglu Gülcin & Montizaan Raymond, 2008. "Estimating the wage penalty for maternal leave," ROA Research Memorandum 005, Maastricht University, Research Centre for Education and the Labour Market (ROA).
  5. Huber, Martin & Mellace, Giovanni & Lechner, Michael, 2014. "Why do tougher caseworkers increase employment? The role of programme assignment as a causal mechanism," Economics Working Paper Series 1414, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science.
  6. Huber, Martin, 2012. "Identifying causal mechanisms in experiments (primarily) based on inverse probability weighting," Economics Working Paper Series 1213, University of St. Gallen, School of Economics and Political Science, revised May 2013.
  7. Carlos A. Flores & Alfonso Flores-Lagunes, 2007. "Identification and Estimation of Casual Mechanisms and Net Effects of a Treatment," Working Papers 0706, University of Miami, Department of Economics.
  8. Lechner, Michael, 2008. "A note on endogenous control variables in causal studies," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 78(2), pages 190-195, February.
  9. Simonsen, Marianne & Skipper, Lars, 2009. "The Family Gap in Wages: What Wombmates Reveal," IZA Discussion Papers 4650, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  10. Shaikh, Azeem M. & Simonsen, Marianne & Vytlacil, Edward J. & Yildiz, Nese, 2009. "A specification test for the propensity score using its distribution conditional on participation," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 151(1), pages 33-46, July.
  11. Flores, Carlos A. & Flores-Lagunes, Alfonso, 2009. "Identification and Estimation of Causal Mechanisms and Net Effects of a Treatment under Unconfoundedness," IZA Discussion Papers 4237, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  12. Geoffrey Dunbar & Stephen Easton, 2013. "Working parents and total factor productivity growth," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 26(4), pages 1431-1456, October.
  13. Beblo, Miriam & Bender, Stefan & Wolf, Elke, 2006. "The wage effects of entering motherhood: a within-firm matching approach," ZEW Discussion Papers 06-53, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  14. Kaiser, Ulrich & Malchow-Møller, Nikolaj, 2011. "Is self-employment really a bad experience?: The effects of previous self-employment on subsequent wage-employment wages," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 572-588, September.
  15. Amalia Miller, 2011. "The effects of motherhood timing on career path," Journal of Population Economics, Springer, vol. 24(3), pages 1071-1100, July.

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