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Competitive One-to-One Promotions

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Author Info

  • Greg Shaffer

    ()
    (William E. Simon Graduate School of Business, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627)

  • Z. John Zhang

    ()
    (The Wharton School of Business, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104)

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    Abstract

    One-to-one promotions are possible when consumers are individually addressable and firms know something about each customer's preferences. We explore the competitive effects of one-to-one promotions in a model with two competing firms where the firms differ in size and consumers have heterogeneous brand loyalty. We find that one-to-one promotions always lead to an increase in price competition (average prices in the market decrease). However, we also find that one-to-one promotions affect market shares. This market-share effect may outweigh the effect of lower prices, benefiting the firm whose market share increases. Our results suggest that of two firms, the firm with the higher-quality product may gain from one-to-one promotions. Our model also has implications for the phenomenon of customer churn, where consumers switch to a less preferred brand due to targeted promotional incentives. We show that churning can arise optimally from firms pursuing a profit-maximizing strategy. Instead of trying to minimize it, the optimal way to manage customer churn is to engage in both offensive and defensive promotions with the relative mix depending on the marginal cost of targeting.

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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.48.9.1143.172
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    Bibliographic Info

    Article provided by INFORMS in its journal Management Science.

    Volume (Year): 48 (2002)
    Issue (Month): 9 (September)
    Pages: 1143-1160

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    Handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:48:y:2002:i:9:p:1143-1160

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    Related research

    Keywords: Database Marketing; Game Theory; Strategy; Price Discrimination;

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    Citations

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    Cited by:
    1. Morten Hviid & Greg Shaffer, 2012. "Optimal low-price guarantees with anchoring," Quantitative Marketing and Economics, Springer, vol. 10(4), pages 393-417, December.
    2. Nicola Jentzsch & Geza Sapi & Irina Suleymanova, 2010. "Joint Customer Data Acquisition and Sharing among Rivals," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1045, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    3. Liu, Qihong & Serfes, Konstantinos, 2005. "Imperfect price discrimination in a vertical differentiation model," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 23(5-6), pages 341-354, June.
    4. Julian Villanueva & Pradeep Bhardwaj & Sridhar Balasubramanian & Yuxin Chen, 2007. "Customer relationship management in competitive environments: The positive implications of a short-term focus," Quantitative Marketing and Economics, Springer, vol. 5(2), pages 99-129, June.
    5. Bing Jing & Z. Zhang, 2011. "Product line competition and price promotions," Quantitative Marketing and Economics, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 275-299, September.
    6. Neeraj Arora & Xavier Dreze & Anindya Ghose & James Hess & Raghuram Iyengar & Bing Jing & Yogesh Joshi & V. Kumar & Nicholas Lurie & Scott Neslin & S. Sajeesh & Meng Su & Niladri Syam & Jacquelyn Thom, 2008. "Putting one-to-one marketing to work: Personalization, customization, and choice," Marketing Letters, Springer, vol. 19(3), pages 305-321, December.
    7. Liu, Qihong & Serfes, Konstantinos, 2006. "Customer information sharing among rival firms," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(6), pages 1571-1600, August.
    8. Dobson, Paul W. & Waterson, Michael, 2008. "Chain-Store Competition: Customized vs. Uniform Pricing," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 840, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    9. K. Coussement & D. F. Benoit & D. Van Den Poel, 2009. "Improved Marketing Decision Making in a Customer Churn Prediction Context Using Generalized Additive Models," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 09/603, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    10. Villanueva, Julian & Bhardwaj, Pradeep & Chen, Yuxin & Balasubramanian, Sridhar, 2004. "Managing customer relationships: Should managers really focus on the long term?," IESE Research Papers D/560, IESE Business School.
    11. Konrad, Kai A., 2010. "Merger profitability in industries with brand portfolios and loyal customers," Discussion Papers, Research Professorship & Project "The Future of Fiscal Federalism" SP II 2010-08, Social Science Research Center Berlin (WZB).
    12. Kutsal Dogan & Ernan Haruvy & Ram Rao, 2010. "Who should practice price discrimination using rebates in an asymmetric duopoly?," Quantitative Marketing and Economics, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 61-90, March.
    13. Sapi, Geza & Suleymanova, Irina, 2013. "Consumer flexibility, data quality and targeted pricing," DICE Discussion Papers 117, Heinrich‐Heine‐Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).
    14. Chen, Yuxin & Zhang, Z. John, 2009. "Dynamic targeted pricing with strategic consumers," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 43-50, January.
    15. Bing Jing, 2007. "Product differentiation under imperfect information: When does offering a lower quality pay?," Quantitative Marketing and Economics, Springer, vol. 5(1), pages 35-61, March.
    16. B. P. S. Murthi & Sumit Sarkar, 2003. "The Role of the Mangement Sciences in Research on Personalization," Review of Marketing Science Working Papers 2-2-1025, Berkeley Electronic Press.
    17. Ke-Wei Huang, 2009. "Optimal criteria for selecting price discrimination metrics when buyers have log-normally distributed willingness-to-pay," Quantitative Marketing and Economics, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 321-341, September.
    18. Stefano Colombo, 2009. "Firms' symmetry and sustainability of collusion in a Hotelling duopoly," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(1), pages 338-346.
    19. Baye, Irina & Sapi, Geza, 2014. "Targeted pricing, consumer myopia and investment in customer-tracking technology," DICE Discussion Papers 131, Heinrich‐Heine‐Universität Düsseldorf, Düsseldorf Institute for Competition Economics (DICE).

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